Te Tiriti o Waitangi | Treaty of Waitangi

Te rarangi wā o Te Tiriti o Waitangi | Treaty timeline

He whenua e tupu ake ana

Koinei te haki tuatahi rawa o Aotearoa New Zealand. I hiahiatia tēnei haki e ngā kaipuke hokohoko, hei waitohu mō rātou i ngā wahapū o Ahitereiria. Engari tērā anō tōna hōhonutanga atu.

I kōwhiria te hoahoa mō te haki o te Kotahitanga o ngā Tino Rangatira e ētahi rangatira 25 i te raki o Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1834. I te tau o muri mai, nā te Kotahitanga i haina He Whakaputanga, i kīa ai he whenua motuhake tēnei whenua taiohi tonu.

Hei waitohu tēnei mō te Tiriti i ngā tau o muri mai.

Drawing of Te Kara that was sent to the Colonial Office.

Image credit: Te Kara — The United Tribes Flag, 1834. Archives New Zealand on Flickr. Some rights reserved: CC BY 2.0. Image sharpened.

Black and white illustrated diagram of Te Kara, the United Tribes flag. It shows the proposed design, dimensions, and colours.

The United Tribes flag (Te Kara) continues to have a special relevance today.

Image credit: New Zealand Company / United Tribes flag, 1839. Ref: GH002925 Te Papa — gift of Andrew Haggerty Richard Gillespie, 1967. Some rights reserved: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Colour photograph of the flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand. It shows 4 stars and a small red cross inside the first quarter of a large red cross.

An emerging nation

This was Aotearoa New Zealand's first flag. Trading ships needed it to identify themselves at Australian ports. But its real meaning went far deeper.

The design for the United Tribes flag was chosen by 25 Far North Māori chiefs in 1834. The next year, the United Tribes signed He Whakaputanga, declaring the young country an independent Māori nation.

It was a hint of the Treaty to come.

Te hiahia ki tētahi tiriti

I ngā tau mai i 1830, kāore i haumārie te noho i Te Ika ā-Māui. He maha ngā pakanga a ngā iwi ki a rātou anō, i mate ai te tini o te tangata. Kua horapa te whānako whenua, kua kitea te mahi ririhau o ētahi o ngā heremana inu waipiro. I te whakaae a ngāi Māori, ngā mihingare me te hunga nohonoho mai — me whakatika tēnei āhua.

Ka tono te māngai o Peretānia, a James Busby (he momo kanohi whenua) ki Rānana, kia āwhina mai. Ka tonoa a William Hobson ki Waitangi ki te tuhi i tētahi Tiriti. I raro i te Tiriti nei ka riro i a Peretānia te whakahaere o te whenua, me ka whakaae ngā taha e rua.

Neke atu i te 500 ngā rangatira nāna Te Tiriti o Waitangi i haina. Engari kāore i taurite rawa te pukapuka reo Ingarihi ki te pukapuka reo Māori — he rerekē ngā kī taurangi o roto, i a wai te mana mō te aha.

He tino tere te tuhi i te Tiriti — kotahi te pō. Kāore i tino wātea ngā kaituhi ki te āta whakamāori i te reo Ingarihi, kia tika ngā kupu Māori.

The need for a treaty

In the 1830s, the North Island was far from peaceful. Iwi fought bloody battles. There was land theft, and bursts of violence from drunken sailors. Māori, missionaries, and settlers agreed — something had to be done.

British Resident James Busby (a kind of ambassador) asked London for help. William Hobson was sent to Waitangi to draw up a treaty. It would give Britain control of the country, if both sides agreed.

More than 500 chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi. But the English and Māori versions weren’t the same — they made different promises about who had power over what.

The Treaty was written very quickly — in just one night. There wasn't enough time to translate the English correctly into te reo Māori.

E iwa ngā 'whārangi'

Ehara i te whārangi kotahi te Tiriti. I waitohutia i ētahi 'whārangi' e iwa, he motuhake katoa. Ko ngā rārangi katoa kei te reo Māori, hāunga anō tētahi. Kāore i tino kitea te kupu tuhituhi i taua wā, nā reira he tini ngā rangatira kāore i mōhio ki te pānui. I mate rātou ki te uiui i te hunga kōrero, me te whakapono ki ngā whakautu.

E rua ngā whārangi o te Tiriti he kiri kararehe kua oti te whakamārōrō — e mōhiotia nei he parchment. Ko ērā atu whārangi e whitu he pepa.

E waru ngā whārangi i āta tuhia ki te pene me te māmangu. Kotahi anake te whārangi i āta tāia. I haere taua whārangi ki te rohe o Waikato.

Nine 'sheets'

The Treaty isn't a single document. It was signed on 9 separate 'sheets'. All but one sheet is in te reo Māori. The written word wasn't common, so many rangatira couldn't read. They had to ask questions and trust the answers.

Two of the Treaty sheets were made of stretched animal skin — known as parchment. The other 7 were made of paper.

Eight sheets were written out with pen and ink. Only one sheet was printed. That one travelled to the Waikato region.

He mea i tāia | Printed sheet, Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Image credit: He mea i tāia | Printed sheet, Te Tiriti o Waitangi. Archives New Zealand on Flickr. Some rights reserved: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

Printed sheet from Te Tiriti o Waitangi | Treaty of Waitangi in te reo Māori. It shows 5 signatures at the bottom of the sheet.

He tini ōna haere?

I kawea haeretia te Tiriti i te whenua kia waitohungia. I haere ki te raki ki Kaitāia rā anō, ka heke rawa ki Ruapuke i Awarua, i Murihiku. Heoi anō, he tini ngā iwi Māori o uta, o te Tai Poutini hoki, kāore i kite i te Tiriti.

I haere te Tiriti mā runga kaipuke — ka kawea haeretia ki te hia wahapū o te motu.

The Herald in a Stewart Island cove on its voyage to collect signatures for the Treaty.

Image credit: H.M.S Herald in Sylvan Cove, Stewarts [Sic] Island, 1840 by Edward Marsh Williams. Ref: A-083-005 Alexander Turnbull Library. Some rights reserved.

Black and white drawing of the HMS Herald sailing in Sylvan Cove, surrounded by rocks and bush.

Well-travelled?

The Treaty was taken around the country to be signed. It went as far north as Kaitāia, and as far south as Ruapuke Island, near Bluff. But many inland and West Coast Māori missed out.

The Treaty mostly travelled by boat — it was taken to dozens of different harbours.

Ko tēhea te putanga i waitohutia e ngā rangatira?

E rua ngā putanga, ko te putanga Ingarihi me te putanga reo Māori o te Tiriti. Neke iti atu i te 500 rangatira nāna i waitohu te putanga i te reo Maori. 39 ngā rangatira nāna i waitohu te putanga reo Ingarihi i te pūau o Manukau, i te pūau o Waikato hoki.

Which version did chiefs sign?

There was an English and a Māori version of the Treaty. Just over 500 chiefs signed the version in te reo Māori. 39 chiefs at Manukau Harbour and Waikato Heads signed the English version.

Te mana wāhine

Ko te wahine whai mana nei o Ngāti Toa ko Te Rangi Topeora tētahi o ngā wāhine Māori maha i waitohu i te Tiriti. He mana nui tō te katoa. I whakaae a Topeora ki ngā manene Pākehā i te tuatahi, engari kāore i whakaae kia haere mai rātou i ngā tau o muri.

Mana of wāhine

The dynamic Ngāti Toa leader Te Rangi Topeora was one of many Māori women who signed the Treaty. All had huge mana. Topeora accepted Pākehā settlers at first, but later opposed them.

Te Rangitopeora (also known as Te Rangi Topeora) of Ngāti Toa and Ngāti Raukawa.

Image credit: Te Rangitopeora of Ngāti Toa and Ngāti Raukawa by Gottfried Lindauer. Archives New Zealand on Flickr. Some rights reserved: CC BY 2.0. Image cropped.

Black and white portrait painting of Te Rangitopeora (also known as Te Rangi Topeora) wearing a Māori cloak, he tiki around her neck and 4 feathers in her hair.