Ngā tūtakitanga tuatahi | First encounters

Te Endeavour i Aotearoa

Ko Rūtene Kuki me ana heremana ngā tāngata Pākehā tuatahi kia tūhura i te nuinga, kia tuhi mapi hōhonu hoki mō te takutai o Aotearoa. I kohia e rātou te tini o ngā tupu, o ngā manu, me ētahi atu koiora, hei mātai mā ngā mātanga, inā hoki, he haerenga pūtaiao tō rātou. I kohia hoki e rātou ētahi taonga i mahia, i whakamahia hoki e ngāi Maori. I tauhokongia ēnei taonga mō ngā taputapu pēnei i te nēra, i te tapanga, me ngā poi whakarākei.

I mīharo anō a Kuki ki te iwi Māori — ki a ia he iwi pakari, he iwi hihiri, he iwi atamai hoki. Engari kāore i pai te hokohoko me te tūtaki ki te iwi hou i ngā wā katoa.

The Endeavour explores Aotearoa

Lieutenant Cook and his crew were the first Europeans to explore and map Aotearoa New Zealand's coastline in detail. It was a scientific expedition so they collected many plants, birds and other specimens for study. They also gathered taonga (objects, treasures) made and used by Māori. They swapped these taonga for items like nails, cloth, and beads.

Cook admired Māori — he thought they were a strong, active, intelligent people. But trade and contact didn’t always go well.

Ngā tūtakitanga tuatahi o ngā iwi e rua | Early meetings between peoples

Turanganui-a-Kiwa

Ko te tangata whenua o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa te iwi tuatahi kia kite i te Endeavour i tāna terenga mai ki te whanga i te 8 o Whiringa-ā-nuku/Oketopa 1769. E ai ki ngā kōrero a ētahi, i pēnei te iwi Māori i kite i te waka tino rerekē e haere mai ana i tawhiti he moutere e tere ana i te moana, ko te manu e mōhiotia nei ko Ruakapanga mai i Hawaiki rānei.

I taua ahiahi i mahuta atu a Rūtene Kuki me ētahi atu ki te ākau, ki te tiki wai, me ētahi taputapu mō te kaipuke. I taua rā, me te rā o muri mai, i tūtaki te Endeavour ki te tangata whenua. Nā Tupaia te iwi Māori rāua ko te iwi Pakehā i āwhina ki te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero. Engari i tutū te puehu, ā, i matemate ētahi tāngata Māori, tae atu ki te rangatira o Ngāti Oneone, ki a Te Maro, rāua ko te rangatira o Rongowhakaata, a Te Rākau.

I muri i ēnei tūtakitanga, i ahu whaka-te-tonga te Endeavour. Kātahi ka huri whakararo anō mā Whangaokena, tae atu ki Te Reinga, piki whakarunga anō ki te tai hauāuru ki Tōtaranui (Queen Charlotte Sound). I a ia e tere ana, ka tū te Endeavour ki Uawa (Tolaga Bay), ki Te Whanganui-o-Hei (Mercury Bay) me te Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands).

Gisborne

The tangata whenua of Turanganui-a-Kiwa were the first to see the Endeavour when it sailed into the bay on 8 October 1769. Some say that when Māori saw the strange vessel approaching from afar, they thought it was a floating island or the legendary bird Ruakapanga from Hawaiki.

In the afternoon, Lieutenant Cook and others went ashore to get water and supplies. On that day and the next, the crew of the Endeavour met tangata whenua (local Māori people). Tupaia helped the Māori and Europeans communicate. But fights broke out, and several Māori died, including Ngāti Oneone leader Te Maro, and Rongowhakaata chief Te Rakau.

After these encounters, the Endeavour sailed south. It then turned north around East Cape, Cape Reinga, and down the west coast of the North Island to Tōtaranui in Queen Charlotte Sound. Along the way, the Endeavour anchored at Uawa (Tolaga Bay), Te Whanganui-o-Hei (Mercury Bay) and Pēwhairangai (Bay of Islands).

Memorial built by Ngāti Oneone in Gisborne to honour their ancestor Te Maro.

Image credit: Te Maro memorial built by Ngāti Oneone in Gisborne, 2019 by David Thomsen. Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA 4.0.

Colour photograph of the Te Maro memorial lit at night. It shows a figure inside a circle surrounded by kōwhaiwhai patterns.

Ko tēnei taonga toi nā Nick Tupara, tētahi whakamaumaharatanga nā Ngāti Oneone i Turanganui-a-Kiwa (Gisborne). Hei tohu maumahara tēnei mō Te Maro — te tipuna, te kaimahi ahuwhenua rongonui, nō taua iwi, te mana whenua.

This artwork by Nick Tupara is a memorial by Ngāti Oneone in Turanganui-a-Kiwa (Gisborne). It represents Te Maro — a tipuna and important gardener of the mana whenua (land).

Pencil drawing of Te Horetā Te Taniwha.

Image credit: Te Horeta Taniwha ca 1850 by Charles Heaphy. Ref: A-147-001 Alexander Turnbull Library. Some rights reserved.

Pencil portrait sketch of Te Horetā Te Taniwha showing his moko and pounamu earring in a side profile view.

Whanganui-o-Hei

Ko Te Horetā Te Taniwha tētahi rangatira nō Ngāti Whanaunga, he kaiwaitohu hoki i Te Tiriti o Waitangi. I āhua 12 ōna tau i tōna pikinga ki te kaipuke Endeavour i tana taenga atu ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Hei i 1769. I tōna pakeketanga ake ka maumaharatia e ia tēnei tūtakitanga tuatahi:

I te noho mātou i Whitianga, ā, ka tau mai tētahi kaipuke ki reira, nō te kitenga o ō mātou pakeke i te kaipuke ka kīa e rātou he tupua, he atua, ā, he tupua katoa hoki ngā tāngata o runga.

I haere mai a Kāpene Kuki ki tō māua nohoanga ko aku hoa, he tama ērā, ā, ka miria ō mātou upoko, kātahi ka homai tana ringa ki ahau me te kōrero mai ki ahau i taua wā tonu, otirā i te pupuru hoki ia i tētahi nēra. I pā mai te mataku ki aku hoa, ā, ka nohopuku; engari anō au, ka kata, ā, ka homai e ia te nēra ki ahau. Ka puritia e au ki taku ringa me taku kī atu 'Ka pai', ā, nāna i whakahua mai aku kupu, me te miri anō i ō mātou upoko ki tōna ringa, ā, haere atu ana.

— Puna: The Discovery of New Zealand

Mercury Bay

Te Horetā Te Taniwha was a leader of Ngāti Whanaunga and signed Te Tiriti o Waitangi (the Treaty of Waitangi). He was about 12 years old when he went aboard the Endeavour on its visit to Mercury Bay in 1769. He recalled this meeting later in life:

We lived at Whitianga, and a vessel came there, and when our old men saw the ship they said it was a tupua, a god, and the people on board were strange beings.

(Captain Cook) came to where I and my two boy-companions were, and patted our heads with his hand, and he put his hand out towards me and spoke to us at the same time, holding a nail out towards us. My companions were afraid, and sat in silence; but I laughed, and he gave the nail to me. I took it into my hand and said 'Ka pai' ['very good'], and he repeated my words, and again patted our heads with his hand, and went away.

— Source: The Discovery of New Zealand

Ngā hua o te Endeavour | Endeavour's discoveries

Portrait of Otegoowgoow drawn by Sydney Parkinson.

Image credit: Portrait of Otegoowgoow, ca 1769 by Sydney Parkinson from A Collection of Drawings Made in the Countries Visited by Captain Cook in His First Voyage, 1768–1771. Ref: Add. 23920, f.54 British Library — The British Library Board. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Black and white portrait illustration of Otegoowgoow. It shows his moko, comb in his hair, pounamu earring, and a fish's tooth around his neck.

Ngā kitenga tuatahi

Ko ngā tuhinga kōkau a Parkinson ngā tuhinga tuatahi o ngāi Māori kia kitea e te hunga o Ūropi.

Tōna tikanga, ko te mea tūturu i hoatu ki a Parkinson he tuhi whakaahua o ngā tupu i te haerenga o te Endeavour. Engari i noho hoki ia ki te tuhi whakaahua o ngāi Māori, i a ia e noho noa ana, ki te whakahoahoa atu ki te tini o rātou, mō te wā roa.

First impressions

Parkinson's sketches were the first visual record of Māori to be seen by Europeans.

Officially, Parkinson was employed to draw plants on the Endeavour expedition. But he also made detailed sketches of Māori after making friends and spending a lot of time with them.

Kōwhai specimen collected by Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks.

Image credit: large-leaved kowhai, Sophora tetraptera J.F.Mill., 1769 collected by Dr Daniel Solander and Sir Joseph Banks. Ref: SP063797/A Te Papa. Some rights reserved: CC BY 4.0.

Colour photograph of kōwhai specimen collected by Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks. Shows branches, leaves, flowers, and seed pods, hand-written labels. Stamped: 'Collected in New Zealand, Banks & Solander 1769–1770, Cook's First Voyage'.

Te mea tūturu

He mea kohikohi tēnei kōwhai e ngā kaimātai rākau e Joseph Banks rāua ko Daniel Solander i te haerenga tuatahi a Kuki. I kohia te hia rau tupu e te tokorua nei, me te tini anō hoki o ngā purapura. I roto i ngā tau ruarua noa iho, i te tupu ēnei otaota i ngā māra o Ingarangi.

The real thing

This kōwhai plant was collected by botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander on Cook's first voyage. The pair gathered hundreds of specimens and many more seeds. In just a few years, the plants were growing in English gardens.

Surveyor's chain used to measure plots of land.

Image credit: Surveyor's chain, ca 1900. Maker unknown. Ref: T000470 Te Papa — gift of R. H. Shepherd, 1988. CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Used with permission.

Colour photograph showing a coiled up surveyor's chain (also called a Gunter's chain). It is made of 100 steel rods, brass tags, and brass handles on each end.

Tētahi rūri mutunga mai o te roa

I whakamahia tēnei mekameka kairūri maitai hei ine i ngā wāhanga whenua.

He tino rerekē ngā whakaaro o te Māori i ō te Pākehā mō ngā tika whenua. E ai ki te Pākehā, ka taea te whenua te hoko mai, hoko atu e te tangata takitahi — he whakaaro tino rerekē ki te Māori.

One really long ruler

This heavy, metal surveyor's chain was used to measure plots of land.

Māori and Pākehā had strikingly different ideas about land rights. To Europeans, land could be bought and sold by individuals — a strange idea to Māori.

A lead line used to measure the depth of water.

Image credit: Deep lead with line for shallow waters, ca 1900. Ref: NM.4-50 Archipel International Maritime Gallery. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Colour studio photograph of a lead line. It shows a reel partially uncoiled with coloured markers along the line and a metal weight on the end.

I roto i te wai hōhonu?

He pēhea te hōhonu o te moana i raro i tō kaipuke?

Tā te Endeavour mahi he maka atu i tētahi aho matā, arā, he aho taumaha, me tētahi tohu i runga mō ia mārō (1.8 mita). Ka tohua e Kuki ēnei hōhonutanga i ngā mapi nāna i mahi mō te takutai.

In deep water?

How deep is the sea beneath your ship?

The Endeavour used a lead line to find out, with a marker for each fathom (1.8 metres). Cook marked these depths on the detailed maps he made of the coastline.

Ngā whakawhitinga tuatahi ki waenganui i ngā tāngata | Early exchanges between peoples

A blue bead that may have been the first item Cook traded with Māori.

Image credit: Blue bead, North Island. Maker unknown. Ref: ME023319 Te Papa. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Colour studio photograph of a blue bead attached to a piece of string.

He hoko tōtika

Ko tēhea te mea wāriu nui: he maramara karaehe ātaahua, he kai, he waiinu rānei?

Ko tēnei maramara te taonga tuatahi kia hokona atu e Rūtene Kuki i Tolaga Bay. I te matekai katoa tana rōpū he tino hiainu hoki. Ki te titiro a ngāi Māori, he taonga hou, he taonga whakamīharo te karaehe.

A fair trade

What's worth more: a pretty piece of glass, or food and water?

This bead might well have been the first item Lieutenant Cook traded with Māori in Tolaga Bay. His crew were hungry and thirsty. To Māori, glass was an amazing new material.

Māori grew and traded potatoes brought by Cook to Aotearoa New Zealand.

Image credit: Whataroa potatoes (taewa), 2019 by shiny. Growstuff. CC BY 2.0

Colour photograph of chopped whataroa potatoes showing the purple patches in the flesh.

Ngā hokohokonga kai

Kei roto i te hautaka a Joseph Banks mō te tau 1769 te huhua o ngā whakaaro mō ngā kai Māori — tae atu ki te kaimoana, ki ngā manu, ki te aruhe. I whakamārama hoki ia i āna kitenga i ētahi huawhenua tino pai — pēnei i te uwhi me te taro — i tupu i roto i ngā māra kai tino pai te takoto.

I noho rātou ki te kai tahi, ā, i whakawhitia he kai e ngā heremana o te Endeavour ki te tangata whenua.

I haria mai e Kuki te huhua o ngā tupu ki Aotearoa i ōna haerenga mai e toru i waenga i 1769 me 1777. I tīmata hoki te whakatupu a te iwi Māori i te huhua o aua kai, pēnei i te rīwai me te kāpeti.

Exchanges of food

In his 1769 journal, Joseph Banks wrote about Māori food (kai) such as seafood, birds, and fern roots. He also described some excellent vegetables — such as yams and taro — harvested from well-cultivated gardens.

The crew of the Endeavour shared meals and traded food with tangata whenua.

Cook brought a range of plants to New Zealand on his 3 visits between 1769 and 1777. Māori started to grow and trade many of these plants too, including potatoes and cabbage.

Painting showing Hōne Heke holding a musket.

Image credit: The Warrior Chieftains of New Zealand, 1846 by Joseph Jenner Merrett. Ref: C-012-019 Alexander Turnbull Library. Some rights reserved.

Colour illustration of Hariata Rongo, Hōne Heke, and Kawiti standing together. It shows Hōne Heke holding a musket.

Ko te ngutu pārera — te pū a te Pākehā

He tere tonu te ako a te Māori i ngā tikanga whawhai ki te pū, hei whawhai mā rātou ki ētahi atu iwi, tāngata nohonoho hoki. I utu rātou mō aua mea rā ki te harakeke, ki te poaka, me te rīwai.

Tata ki te 20,000 ngāi Māori i mate i roto i ngā pakanga ngutu pārera, mai i 1810–1840, heoi anō, he kino noa atu ngā tahumaero nā tauiwi i kawe mai mō te whakamate tangata.

Muskets — the white man's weapon

Māori quickly learned to use long-barrelled muskets to fight other tribes and settlers. They paid for them with flax, pigs, and potatoes.

About 20,000 Māori died in the 'musket wars' of 1810–1840, but introduced diseases would turn out to be far deadlier.