I muri mai i Te Tiriti o Waitangi | Post-Treaty of Waitangi

Whenua me ngā kawe ā-riri | Land and conflict

He kupu i takahia ki raro?

I tino kaha te taukumekume a te tangata mō ngā whāinga o Te Tiriti. I muri mai i te waitohutanga, ka kite ngā Māori i te tangohia ō rātou tika ki ō rātou whenua, me ō rātou tauranga hī ika.

I ngā tau mai i 1840 me 1850, i hokona ētahi wāhi nui whakaharahara o te Waipounamu. Taro kau ake kua nui atu a ngāi Pākehā i a ngāi Māori, ā, kua iti iho hoki ngā wāhi e noho ai te hapū. Kāore ngā taringa i whakarongo ki ngā kupu whakahē.

Broken promises?

The Treaty's aims were hotly debated. After it was signed, Māori soon saw that their customary land and fishing rights were being ignored.

In the 1840s and 1850s, huge chunks of the South Island were sold. Pākehā would soon outnumber Māori, and places where hapū could live were shrinking. Protests were ignored.

Māori land (yellow) and British settlements (red) in 1861.

Image credit: Sketch Map of the North Island of New Zealand Shewing the Maori Tribes, Their Population, Their Lands in Yellow & the British Settlements in Red, 1861. Ref: Map 2563 Auckland Libraries — Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections. No known copyright restrictions. Used with permission.

Colour illustrated map of the North Island of Aotearoa New Zealand in 1861. The yellow areas show Māori land and red areas show British settlements.

The battle for Puketutu pā in Northland.

Image credit: Sketch of the Action at Mawe, New Zealand, on the 8th May, 1845 by the Forces Under Command of Lt Colonel Hulme 96th Regt. Composed of Head Quarter Division of 58th. Details &C of 96th — A Few Marines & Sailors of H. M. Ships North Star and Hazard Against the Combined Forces of the Rebels Heke & Kawiti, 1845 by Cyprian Bridge. Ref: A-079-008 Alexander Turnbull Library. Some rights reserved.

Colour artwork of the battle of Puketutu, part of The New Zealand Wars |  Ngā Pakanga mō Aotearoa. The artwork shows Royal Marines in the foreground firing a Congreve rocket at the pā.

Ngā Pakanga mō Aotearoa

I ngā tau i te takiwā o 1850, i haere ngā pakanga i te Ika-ā-Māui mō te whenua. I murua ngā whenua o ngā Māori i pakanga ki te Karauna — tōna 1 miriona heketea, huia katoatia.

The New Zealand Wars

In the mid–1800s, battles raged in the North Island over land. Māori who fought the Crown had their homelands confiscated — about 1 million hectares in all.

Colour illustration of 3 Māori warriors in the forest, watching a group of British soldiers.

Te Ātete i runga i te Rangimārie i Parihaka

He poropiti a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi. Ko rāua ngā kaiārahi o tētahi hapori whakapono, o Parihaka, i Taranaki. Kua murua ngā whenua Māori e te kāwanatanga, ā, nā ngā tāne o Parihaka i parau, hei whakahē. I turakina e te kāwanatanga ngā taiepa huri noa i aua whenua, heoi anō, nā te iwi o Parihaka i whakatū anō. I te tau 1881, i haere atu ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga ki te whakawhiu i te hapori — ko te ope pōwhiri i a rātou he tamariki e waiata ana. Ka turakina a Parihaka, ā, i mauheretia a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu.

Parihaka peaceful resistance

Te Whiti-o-Rongomai and Tohu Kākahi were prophets. They led a peaceful religious community, Parihaka, in Taranaki. The government had taken Māori land, so Parihaka men ploughed it in protest. The government pulled down fences around the land, but Parihaka people rebuilt them. In 1881, government soldiers went to punish the community — and were met by singing children. They still destroyed Parihaka, and arrested Te Whiti and Tohu.

Colour illustration of a young Māori girl holding out a loaf of bread to a line of European soldiers at Parihaka.

Māori Land March arriving at Parliament.

Image credit: Māori Land March — October 13 1975, Parliament, Wellington. Archives New Zealand on Flickr. Some rights reserved: CC BY 2.0.

Black and white photograph showing Māori Land March protestors arriving at Parliament in Wellington.

Te hīkoi mō te whenua: Kaua he eka kotahi anō!

I te tau 1975, i hīkoi ētahi kaiwhakahē i te Tai Tokerau ki Pōneke ki te whakahau kia kaua e tangohia etahi atu whenua i te iwi Māori. He mea arataki te hīkoi e Whina Cooper, 79 ōna tau.

The land march: 'Not one more acre!'

In 1975, protesters walked from Northland to Wellington to demand that no more land be taken from Māori. The hīkoi was led by 79-year-old Whina Cooper.

Takaparawhā

I te tau 1977, ka rere te hia rau kaiwhakahē ki Takaparawhā (Bastion Point) i Tāmakimakaurau, me te whakapae, he mea whānako aua whenua. I muri i tētahi pūrongo nā te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti, i whakahokia tētahi wāhi nui ki te iwi.

Bastion Point

In 1977, hundreds of protesters moved in at Takaparawhā (Bastion Point) in Auckland, saying the land had been stolen. Following a Waitangi Tribunal report, much of it was returned.

Ngāti Whātua occupation of Bastion Point.

Image credit: Ngāti Whātua occupation of Bastion Point, 1978 by Robin Morrison. Ref: PH-1992-5-RM-N10-1 Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Black and white photograph of the Bastion Point protest, showing a Māori boy beside a sign 'Bastion Point Maori land', with police standing behind him.

Waitomo Caves.

Image credit: Aladdin's Cave, Waitomo Caves, ca 1960s by Gladys M Goodall. Ref: GG-02-0036 Alexander Turnbull Library. Some rights reserved.

Colour photograph inside Waitomo Caves showing stalagmites and stalactites hanging from the cave ceiling.

Ngā tomo o Waitomo — ka whakahokia ki te iwi Māori

I te tau 1989, ka whakahokia te mana o ngā tomo pūrātoke i Waitomo ki te hapū o te rohe. Koirā te take Tiriti tawhito tuatahi kia whakataungia.

He tini anō ngā kerēme whai i muri, tae atu ki te kerēme Wai 262 mō ngā āhuatanga i pā ki te ahurea, ki ngā tikanga me te noho whanaunga ki te aotūroa, mai i ngā rā o mua ki nāianei.

Waitomo Caves — returned to Māori

In 1989, ownership of the popular glow-worm caves at Waitomo was returned to local hapū. It was the first historical Treaty claim to be settled.

Dozens of claims followed, including the Wai 262 claim for Māori rights around culture, customs, and relationships with nature, now and in the future.

Te takere moana me te takutai

I te tau 2004, ka hīkoi te tini o ngāi Māori, ngāi Pākehā hoki, ki te whakahē i te Pire a te Kāwanatanga mō te Takere Moana me te Takutai, ki te Whare Pāremata me te whakaturituri i ngā tiriti. I mārama te kupu kōrero: kaua mā te Karauna e pupuru i te takutai mōna anō.

Foreshore and seabed

In 2004, thousands of Māori and Pākehā loudly opposed the government's Foreshore and Seabed Bill and marched on Parliament. Their message was clear: the Crown should not own the coastline.

Foreshore and Seabed Bill hīkoi arrives at Parliament.

Image credit: Hikoi arrives at Parliament, 22nd March 2011 by Lance Andrewes. Flickr. Some rights reserved: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Colour photograph of Foreshore and Seabed Bill protestors holding the Māori flag and a large banner 'Maori seabed for shore!'

Te tangata, te whenua, me te mana whakahaere | People, the state, and power

Ko te Kīngitanga — te kaupapa Kīngi

He kīngi, he kuīni mana-nui tō Peretānia. Ka whakaaro ētahi iwi, mā te whakatū kīngi pea e houhia ai te rongo, e tōpūtia ai te tokomaha o te iwi Māori i raro i te karangatanga kotahi.

Kīngitanga — the 'king' movement

The British had powerful kings and queens. Many iwi thought that choosing a leader might bring peace, and give Māori strength in numbers.

Colour illustration of a Māori king sitting and facing a Māori group.

The middle flag in this image was hoisted at Haurua in the Waikato on 3 April 1857 when Pōtatau Te Wherowhero accepted the title of first Māori King.

Image credit: Maori Flags, ca 1910. Ref: A-138-046 Alexander Turnbull Library. Some rights reserved.

Colour drawing of 5 flags with 3 showing the inscriptions — War, Rongopai, and Nuitireni.

Aotearoa New Zealand's first Parliament building in Auckland.

Image credit: Looking north from the site of the Supreme Court showing Parliament Building later used by the Auckland Provincial Council, 1861. Ref: 7-A5442 Auckland Libraries — Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections. No known copyright restrictions. Used with permission.

Black and white photograph of NZ's first Parliament building — the Auckland Provincial Council building. The coast can be seen in the background.

He Pāremata mō te iwi?

I tū te pōtitanga ā-motu tuatahi i te tau 1853 — engari torutoru noa iho ngāi Māori i āhei te pōti. I te tau 1867, ka hurihia tēnei āhua, ka hoatu ētahi tūru e whā ki a ngāi Māori. Ko te tāne anake i whakaaetia kia tū.

Parliament for the people?

The first national election was held in 1853 — but very few Māori could vote. In 1867, this changed and Māori were given 4 seats. Only men could stand for these.

Te Kotahitanga — he Pāremata mō ngāi Māori

Ka kite te iwi Māori i te kaha o tēnei mea te Pāremata, ā, nō te tau 1892 ka whakatūria tō rātou ake i Pāpāwai. I whakahaere pōti ā-motu Te Kotahitanga, ka ngana hoki ki te kawe i ngā whakaaro o te pāremata i Pōneke. Ka haere tonu taea noatia te tau 1902.

Kotahitanga — a Parliament for Māori

Māori saw how powerful a Parliament was, and in 1892 they set up their own in Pāpāwai. Te Kotahitanga held national elections and tried to influence the parliament in Wellington. It lasted until 1902.

Opening of the meeting house at Pāpāwai pā. Pāpāwai was the seat of the Māori Parliament in the late 19th century.

Image credit: Maori group at the opening of the meeting house at Papawai Pa, Greytown, 1897. Ref: PAColl-1892-77 Alexander Turnbull Library. Some rights reserved.

Black and white photograph of a Māori group standing outside the meeting house at Pāpāwai pā, Greytown.

Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia.

Image credit: Copy of portrait of Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia by Frederick W. Mason. Ref: PH-CNEG-C5101 Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Copy of a cabinet card with a black and white studio photograph of Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia seated with plants. Below the photo are the words 'F W Mason Emerson Street Napier NZ'.

Ka whiwhi pōti te wāhine

I te tau 1893, ka whakaae a Aotearoa kia whai mana pōti te wāhine — he whakatau i turapa ai te tangata i aua wā! I whawhai ngātahi ngā wāhine Māori, Pākehā hoki kia tutuki te kaupapa. I whakaaetia hoki ngā wāhine Māori kia pōti i roto i te Pāremata Māori.

Women get the vote

In 1893, Aotearoa New Zealand gave women the vote — a shocking decision for the time! Māori and Pākehā women fought together to make it happen. Māori women also won the right to vote in the Māori parliament.

Colour illustration of Kate Sheppard and Ākenehi Tōmoana standing in front of a white camellia bush.

Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1975, ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga tētahi rūnanga whakawā hei wherawhera i ngā whakapae mō ngā takahanga i ngā kī taurangi o te Tiriti. Kotahi tekau tau i muri, ka whakarite ture te Karauna e āhei ai ngā take te hoki whakamuri ki te tau 1840.

The Waitangi Tribunal

In 1975, the government set up a tribunal to decide if Treaty promises to Māori had been kept. A decade later, the Crown decided that grievances could be heard dating back to 1840.

Rangitane Parsons, of Tangoio Marae, greets Napier historian Pat Parsons, a researcher in multiple claims to the Treaty of Waitangi Tribunal, 2017.

Image credit: Rangitane Parsons greets Pat Parsons, 2017 by NZME/Warren Buckland. Hawkes Bay Today. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Colour photograph of Rangitane Parsons greeting Pat Parsons with a hongi at Tangoio Marae.

Te mana ora o Te Tiriti o Waitangi | Te Tiriti recognised

Te Rā o Waitangi — he pikiniki, he whakahē

Ko Te Rā o Waitangi, 6 o Pēpuere, tō tātou hararei ā-motu. Ki ētahi, he rā tēnei hei whakanui i tō tātou takenga mai i ngā ao e rua. Ki ētahi anō, he rā hei tū ake ki te kōrero, ki te whakatakoto take.

Waitangi Day — picnics and protests

Waitangi Day, 6 February, is our national holiday. For some, it's a chance to celebrate our bicultural roots. For others, it's a time to speak freely and highlight grievances.

Protest hīkoi setting off from Takaparawhā (Bastion Point) heading to Waitangi.

Image credit: Hikoi emerging from Marae. Takaparawha Bastion Point. Te Hikoi ki Waitangi, 1984 by Gil Hanly. Ref: PH-2015-2-GH508-26 Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Black and white photograph of a hikoi — protestors hold flags and march from Ōrākei Marae at Takaparawhā Bastion Point.

Petition to introduce te reo Māori in schools.

Image credit: Petition to introduce te reo Māori in schools, 1972. Archives New Zealand on Flickr. Some rights reserved: CC BY 2.0.

Colour photograph showing a collection of signed petition papers to introduce te reo Māori in schools in 1972.

Te reo Māori

Mai i ngā 1860, he nui kē atu te iwi Pākehā i te iwi Māori. Ka tae ki ngā tau tuatahi mai i 1900, ka whakahautia te iwi Māori kia 'kōrero Pākehā' kia koke whakamua i te ao nei. I muri mai, i patua ngā tamariki mō te kōrero i te reo Māori i kura.

Nā ngā kōkiri tiaki i te reo, ka ora i te ao nei. Ka haere ngā tau, ā, ka kīa he reo whai mana i te tau 1987.

Te reo Māori

From the 1860s, Pākehā outnumbered Māori. By the early 1900s, Māori were told to 'kōrero Pākehā' to get ahead. Later, kids were punished for speaking te reo Māori at school.

Through committed protection, te reo survived. It finally became an official language in 1987.