The hierarchy of terms relating to biology and the natural world has been significantly revised and clarified. Pūpū (Molluscs), Tio (Oysters) and Tipa (Scallops) are now Heke (narrower terms) of Ngā uri o Tangaroa (Marine life), and many terms relating to living organisms have been shifted from Pūtaiao (Science) to the more appropriate term of Koiora (Biology).
There are a number of new concepts relating to the environment, living organisms and science. These include: Mātauranga mātātoka (Palaeontology), Mātātoka (Fossils), and a term for carbon, Waro (Pūmotu). The last may be especially useful when describing resources that relate to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.
A number of terms have been created that may be useful when describing resources for children. These include Tauaro (Opposites), Gratitude (Whakamoemiti), and Punua (Young animals). A new term has been added to describe informal language, Reo ōpaki.
Concepts in the domain of economic and political development have been developed further. There is a new term, Kōkiri, which may be used for Advocacy, and the term Auahatanga has been created to convey innovation and creativity. A new English see reference guides users from Equality to Mana tangata (Achieved status). The term Ōhanga whanaketanga (Economic development) has been updated to make it clear that it also encompasses the concept of Risk management.