COVID-19 — He Tohu is open under the Orange COVID-19 traffic light setting, with safety measures in place. Self-guided tours are available. Our guided tours are not operating. Read more about visiting us during COVID-19
Some features of our website won't work with Internet Explorer. Improve your experience by using a more up-to-date browser like Chrome, Firefox, or Edge.
Skip to content

Parihaka: Remembering November 5, 1881

Hear Ruakere Hond reflect on the invasion of Parihaka in 1881 and how it has impacted the Parihaka community.

  • Transcript | Part 1

    Speakers

    Paul Diamond, Tanja Schubert-McArthur, Ruakere Hond

    Paul Diamond: Tēnā tātou. E te tuatahi, ka timata tātou me te karakia. Nā reira:

    Whakataka te hau ki te uru
    Whakataka te hau ki te tonga
    Kia mākinakina ki uta
    Kia mātaratara ki tai
    E hī ake ana te atākura
    He tio, he huka, he hau hū
    Tīhei mauri ora!

    Tēnā tātou.
    Anō te pai, te āhuareka o te noho tahi o ngā tuakana me ngā teina i runga i te whakaaro kotahi. Tuatahi, ka mihi ahau ki ngā mate kua hinga ki te toki o Aituā. Haere koutou ki te moana nui, te rerenga o ngā waka i hoehoea ai e rātou mā, ka ngaro i te tirohanga kanohi. Heoi anō, e mau tonu ana i ngā tōpitopito o te ngākau.

    Āpiti hono, tātai hono, rātou te hunga mate ki a rātou. Āpiti hono, tātai hono, tātou te hunga ora ki a tātou katoa. Kua huihui mai tātou i tēnei rūma, Taiwhanga Kauhau, kei te papa e kīia nei, ko Tiakiwai. Ko Te Ahumairangi te papa ki runga.
    Ko Tiakiwai te awa iti e rere atu ki te moana, te Whanga-nui-ā-Tara. Ko Te Ahumairangi te hiwi kei korā. Nā ngā mana whenua o te rohe nei i tapainga ēnei tohu whenua.

    Nā reira, ngā tāngata o te raukura, Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika, ka nui te mihi ki a koutou katoa. Ka mihi hoki ki te kaupapa o te rā, tēnei kaupapa e kōrero nei, ko E oho! Kia noho tahi, kia whakarongo, kia kōrero, kia rere ngā whakawhiti whakaaro e pā ana ki te taonga rā, Te Tiriti. Kia whakaohooho i a tātou.

    Tēnei rā, te rā o te Pāhuatanga, i whakaohooho te whenua, i te tau 1881. Me te mea nei, e pāorooro ana tonu taua rā. Hei te rā nei, ka tuku mihi maioha ki tā tātou nei kaikōrero, tākuta Ruakere Hond, nō Taranaki, Ngāti Ruanui, Whānua ā-Apanui.

    E te rangatira, Ruakere, nau mai anō ki te whare nei. Mauria mai ō pūkenga, ō kōrero hoki, kia whakaohooho i a tātou. I te ahiahi nei ka hoki aku mahara ki tō kauhau i tērā tau kei te whare nei. Ka whakaaro ake ahau ki te Noema i tērā tau, ki te wā i tū mātou ko tōku hoamahi ko Lynette Shum, kei Te Pūrepo. He pūmaharatanga kahurangi tērā mōku. Nā mātou te hōnore ka taea e koe te whai wā kia tuku kōrero kei te whare nei.

    Ngā mihi hoki ki a koutou e te whakaminenga, kua whakarauika mai nei i te ahiahi nei. Nā reira, tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou katoa.

    Waiata tautoko: Kōkiri Kōkiri Kōkiri composed by Bella Tarawhiti

    Kōkiri Kōkiri Kōkiri (composed by Bella Tarawhiti)

    Whakarongo ake au ki ngā reo o te motu
    e karanga mai ana huakina huakina te whare ē
    ka oti ka oti ngā mahi ē
    haere mai e te iwi kia piri tāua
    kia ki te atu ai ngā kupu whakairi ē
    ēnei ngā wariu o ngā mahi tuhinga
    hei mahi ketuketu
    ngā whakaaro rerekē
    ko hanga whakatū ngā aria ki te iwi
    e kore e mimiti he puna wairua ē
    he puna wairua ē

    Paul Diamond: Kia ora koutou. Good afternoon. My name is Paul Diamond. I'm the Māori curator at the Alexander Turnbull Library. And just to summarise what I've just said in the short mihi to begin our session today was just acknowledging, as we do, those who've passed beyond the veil, bringing us back to the realm of the living.

    Acknowledging mana whenua of this rohe where the library is situated. And acknowledging this kaupapa that's brought us together, this E oho! series that's been a terrific thing that the library has been doing.

    And acknowledging that we're here today on the anniversary of the invasion day of Parihaka in 1881, a year to the day that Ruakere — we were lucky enough to have Ruakere addressing us on that day as well.

    And welcoming him back and acknowledging that for me, personally, I was also remembering that last November Lynette and I were at Parihaka. I was helping Lynette with the oral history workshop that she was delivering and we had time,and Ruakere had time to take us to Te Pūrepo, the hill which was where a lot of the photos of Parihaka are taken from and has a special significance in the day that we're remembering today.

    And just to acknowledge that the Library is part of a kaupapa called Te Huanga ō Rongo. And it was a 2017 relationship agreement between Crown parties, local authorities, and Parihaka that includes assistance towards initiatives such as healing and reconciliation, infrastructure, and cultural development. And it's been for me, personally, a huge privilege to be involved with that to find out ways that these various groups can support the aspirations which some of the most visionary and exciting that I've come across in my role here in the Library.

    And I came across a great quote from Ruakere in an E-Tangata interview where he said, "Anything we do, if we have the right principles, is doing the right thing." And I think that's what I found so interesting in listening to the kōrero]. the strong grounding in these really amazing principles that make the history come alive and remind us of its relevance today.

    So now I'm going to hand over to my colleague Dr. Tanja Schubert-McArthur who is actually the organiser and the brains behind this E oho! Waitangi series. She'll introduce Ruakere and also tell you more about the remaining talks in the series. Kia ora over to you.

    Tanja Schubert-McArthur: Nau mai, haere mai ki Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa. Welcome everybody to National Library, today, on a very significant day. Thank you, Paul, for the introduction. So I'm a learning facilitator here and I feel really privileged to be able to put on this series because we have great discussions and we hear from amazing speakers.

    Now I'd like to announce that there's only one more E oho! talk left in this year but we will continue next year. So on the 18th of November, the topic of the talk is Treaty and Tamariki. And the speaker is Assistant Māori Children's Commissioner Glenis Philip-Barbara. So that should be another interesting one. Put it in your calendar and please book your seat because we can only allow 84 people at the moment. So then we start again in February 2022. Keep an eye on our website.

    Today on the 5th of November 1881, the small Māori settlement of Parihaka in Taranaki was invaded by 1,600 troops. And their leaders, Te Whiti o Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi, were imprisoned without trial. What happened at Parihaka was one of the darkest moments in New Zealand's history.

    But it gives me hope that we have gathered here today to remember Parihaka 140 years later. And often people say when they hear about Parihaka, for example, on our He Tohu tours, why haven't I been told? Why haven't I learned at school? And I think we can see a change with the curriculum coming in effect next year but also occasions like this where people gather and remember.

    Ruakere Hond will be giving the presentation shortly. At 1 o'clock we give people who have other meetings, perhaps, to go to those. So we can leave quietly then. And but it'd be great if you can stay for the closing karakia that happens at 1 o'clock.

    After that, we'd like to have time for discussion and questions, so you're welcome to stay on. And by 1:30 we should be all out of here because there's another group coming into the space. You could probably keep having your conversations upstairs or in the cafe.

    Now let me introduce our speaker. Dr Ruakere Hond is a longstanding advocate of te reo Māori and a key supporter of the Parihaka community. He has held several leadership roles in Māori language organisations, including Te Reo o Taranaki, Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi and Te Ataarangi. He has served two terms as a member of the Te Taura Whiri i te reo Māori and is currently a Board member of Te Mātāwai, which leads implementation of the Maihi Māori language strategy. He was instrumental in working to achieve reconciliation between the Crown and the Parihaka community. He is also a member of the Waitangi Tribunal.

    Please put together your hands for Ruakere Hond.

    [APPLAUSE]

    Ruakere Hond: Timata atu i te karakia nei i a Whakataka te Hau. I tēnei wiki i rongo a Taranaki i te hau, te kaha o te hau. Nō reira ka whai pērā te ia o taku karakia mō te hau tonu. Tīkina atu te karakia o Whare-matangi. He tupuna o taku hapū nei o Ngā Māhanga-a-Tāiri, otirā o Kurahaupō waka, o Taranaki iwi. E pēnei ana te taki, he wāhanga o tana karakia.

    E rere e te hau whenua,
    he hau whenua, he hau moana.
    Whakaroro ki tai tonga, ki tai māuru,
    ki te iho tū, ki te iho whenua,
    ki te iho tāngata nā Hine-ahu-one.

    Koirā te kaupapa o taku kōrero. I roto o Parihaka ka aro atu ki te tikanga, arā, ko te iho tū. Ka aro atu ki te whenua, arā, ko te iho whenua. Otirā ko te kaupapa tangata koia tātou e hui tahi nei, ana, ko te iho tāngata, ko Hine-ahu-one te timatanga o tātou te tangata ki te ao.

    Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tēnā tātou katoa.

    I runga anō i te pai o te waiata, whakaaro nei au he kīnaki ki taku kōrero ka tīkina atu te kōrero a ngā tamariki i te wā i haere mai ai ngā hōia ki runga i a Parihaka. Ehara i te waiata engari he taki, nō reira ka takina e au, ana i tēnei wā.

    Kua hari, kua koa,
    Kua tū te tikanga
    Kua haurangi katoa mai te ao nei e

    Kua hari, kua koa,
    Kua tū te tikanga
    Kua haurangi katoa mai te ao nei e

    Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou. Tēnā koe Pāora, te whakatau mai i a au i runga i a Tiakiwai, ana, te whare e tū nei. Otirā Ahumairangi e tū nei, e whakamaru i a tātou i te rangi nei. Tēnā koutou, tēnā tātou.

    E oho! I was thinking this morning, 5 o'clock this morning, e oho!. Not that I had to wake up at that time but I wake up quite often at that time. And one of the things that came into my mind that 140 years ago at around exactly that time the bugle was sounded at Pungarehu which was a signal to the troops to begin their descent upon Parihaka.

    And so, 140 years ago, five generations in my whānau — I'm the fifth generation from that time — the troops marched to the sound of that bugle. And for Parihaka, the bugle was the symbol, was the sound, not of the motivation of the soldiers but the beginning of the destruction of what they were seeking to achieve, and that the fight had just got real. The fight was just starting to escalate to another level. And that level was — prior to the 5th of November, the actions of Parihaka was to stand its ground and to protest against the injustice of the confiscation of lands. So on this day, 140 years ago, at 5 o'clock in the morning, well, that's when I woke up.

    Ka oho a Parihaka ki tērā kaupapa, ana, ko te rironga o te whenua. However, we say ‘Ka riro te whenua’. So in my kōrero I referred to the whenua and the people. Te rironga o te whenua, he rerekē, i te rironga o te tangata.

    So land can be lost but it's not lost in the same way we lose people in the generations upon the land. The land is still there except it's lost from the control and the authority of the people that were formerly associated with it. So tēnā koutou.

    I'd like to begin with the concept. I'll get my first image up here. I'd like to begin with a concept that in some ways Parihaka is getting a little bit tired of talking about our history. And the difficulty about talking about history is it's located in the past.

    And yet the community itself is very much located in the present. And our focus is not so much focused in on the present, but it's very much focused in on the future. And so when we talk about Parihaka, I like to use this photo as a starting point, is that we recognise our past. But the beauty about our past is it provides a narrative of how we should act in the present and how we should focus in on the future.

    The person in there that's very much a focus not only just in terms of the camera's focus but also the focus for our people is Te Whetū Moeahu, key leader of Parihaka. A key leader prior to Parihaka as well and that he later led the people of Taranaki in terms of resisting and fighting against what the Crown was doing in their community. He was very much a leader, a warrior, in terms of war and very much a part of the ambush on Brady, Captain Brady and others. So he was right there in the middle of that.

    But when he came to Parihaka, he came to Parihaka and moved away from the violence of war and committed himself to a focus for peace. And he's leading this wonderful kapa outside of Te Niho o Te Atiawa, the house that was built by the people of Te Atiawa to restore again that confidence in those aspirations that were trashed through the process of the pāhua.

    So the occupation of Parihaka for almost four years by the troops and the control of the community for that period of time when the constabulary-- when the troops finally left Parihaka. The big question is, where is Parihaka now?
    Most of the houses had fallen into disrepair because people weren't able to go to the bush to get the materials to be able to repair their buildings. And at the same time, many of the people have been forced out of Parihaka and were not allowed to return into the community.

    So one of the first things that was done by many of the iwi, Te Atiawa included was to pool their resources. And they didn't have a lot of resources but they pooled their resources to build buildings like Te Atiawa to say that the way forward was to continue with development and growth. And to show the government that Parihaka was looking towards the future, not in terms of antagonism towards the Crown, but trying to work with a future and find a way forward for the people of Parihaka.

    So one of the beautiful things about this picture is, to me, it encapsulates that concept. This is after the pāhua. This is when the people were returning. And you can see that our wāhine here supported by our tāne, but our wāhine carrying poi. These are their narratives that they put into songs. The concern within Parihaka was that when people were standing up and writing down what Tohu and Te Whiti was saying in the community, it was often ending up in the hands of government and be mistranslated. Some would say on purpose was being misinterpreted and turned into something that was very negative.

    So what Tohu and Te Whiti did and other leaders as well within Parihaka is encourage our communities to put their words into waiata and in those times the waiata not much attention was given to waiata.

    One is that the waiata was very formal language, creative language. So sometimes it was very difficult to interpret but it was also largely seen as simply entertainment.

    But for the community, the waiata were a key element of retaining those narratives, retaining those statements that were made by our communities that continue to give them direction into the future. And we know this because the next generation-- the next picture, is just as important as this one.

    And it's this one. They ensured that-- this is really my great grandmother's generation. They ensured the next generation learnt those waiata and passed that kōrero down. This was our library. This was our pūna mātauranga] was within the numerous waiata. We only sing probably about 30 of them now but there are at least 80 that have been recorded. And there were many, many more with the numerous kapa haka.

    Each iwi had their own rōpū that carried their own narratives. Tohu and Te Whiti-- and they are the leaders of Parihaka-- didn't tell each iwi this is what you have to believe. This is what you have to follow. They said it's up to you to determine what that way is forward.

    Because Parihaka wasn't a place as such. It was very much a set of principles, a set of direction for the community to follow and to find their way to make sense of the world in that post-Pāhua environment. So the waiata themselves create it and provide it.

    I would also like to make the point that while I'm standing here, in no way do I speak for all of Parihaka. Parihaka is as diverse as our communities out there. You walk outside the door and you will find numerous people. I'm not talking about misinformation and narratives that are occurring now with conspiracy theories and the like. I'm talking really around just people's reality are as diverse in Parihaka as they are diverse in our communities now.

    And so I can only talk about this from what I have experienced and the people I have had conversations with in the way that I have made sense of our post-Pāhua environment.

    Kei te pai? I'm going to try and get through this quickly. So that we can get into the good stuff, which is-- I'm going to move away from talking about the history and talking to what is-- where is Parihaka heading from my perspective.
    This is one of the earliest pictures that has been taken of Parihaka. And as Paul rightly spoke about, most of these pictures were taken from Te Pūrepo, the large hill which is for obvious reasons the troops put their cannon on top because it's the best hill to be able to see the whole community from. And they directed their cannon at the people who were sitting directly in front of them.

    But I would think probably one of the reasons why this hill is so good for taking photos is that the backdrop is looking directly towards Taranaki and the community is right in front of it. So it creates the perfect environment for capturing what is the community.

    You can see from this image and the following image as well is that the majority of the houses are made in traditional way with either raupō or wīwī roofs sometimes with tōtara bark as well, with ponga walls. And this is the way that they create it. And you can see the houses are so close together. So many people living in this community.

    And we have here another image around the same time. But the first house you can see, European style house was Miti Mai Te Arero. You can see the houses there up on top of the hill built with the strong support-- the leadership of Te Whetū Moeahu, the person I spoke about in front of the poi group. And this was very much a house that was built by the people of Taranaki iwi as a demonstration of their support. This is the way Parihaka would have looked when the troops marched into Parihaka on the 5th of November in 1881.

    However, after 1881 when Parihaka started to rebuild itself, you can see there's a lot fewer houses and you can start seeing more European style houses. I would think that one of the main reasons why more Western style houses were being built was a way in which trying to demonstrate to the world that Parihaka was wanting to move forward. It was to move forward with things like electricity, with running water, and gas lights. All of those sorts of things that for many of the communities around Taranaki, they hadn't become part of the way in which communities-- their experiences, in the way they lived. So Parihaka was very much attempting to show the world that Parihaka wasn't about protesting and staying in the past but was very much focused in on future.

    And this is a picture at around the time around 1900. And again you can see a definite change in the style of houses and the way in which we lived.

    This is a picture of the-- which looks very different to the others. It's not taken from the hill on top of Te Pūrepo but from a drone on the day of the signing of the reconciliation agreement with the Crown.

    For at least five times, the Crown, Helen Clark, and others had stood up at hui and said, I would like to stand and make a formal apology. And our kaumātua within Parihaka had said, that is not how an apology is done. An apology is far more in depth than that. You need to outline quite clearly what it is that you're apologising for. And not just an apology and mapping out what it is that the apology relates to, but also what is going to be done to move forward with it. E mihi atu ki a koe (pointing to Ian Hicks of Arawhiti), e hoa me te mōhio tonu i reira koe, me te Kaupapa i takina ki reira i te taha o Chris Finlayson.

    The thing that I marvel about that day is that at time of the Pāhua the greatest impediment to the Pāhua was actually the governor-general. Governor-general at the time, Gordon, was the governor-general who refused-- who objected to going ahead with the challenging and the destruction of Parihaka.

    And so the government waited. This is Gore Brown, and obviously Bryce, and others, Rolleston, and others waited until the governor-general was out of the country visiting Pacific Islands. And under the terms of that time because the governor-general had to sign off all legislation in the country and he was refusing to go ahead and agree to it, they waited until he left the country. And under the terms of the governor-general's powers was that the chief justice would then take over the responsibility for signing off all laws, who we all know is, well-- Prendergast, who was infamous really for very strong attitudes. And his landmark case that set a precedent that nullified the treaty within courts, in this case between Wī Parata and the church, Anglican church. And a case very close to, obviously, here Te-Whanganui-a-Tara. But Prendergast was jumping at the bit to agree to this law, to the decision made in courts that then gave Bryce the right to form his attacking force and then attack Parihaka on the 5th of November.

    But the thing that I marvel about is that because Parihaka didn't fit into the settlement structure-- the settlement is around large natural groupings which are iwi and hapū and Parihaka technically isn't an iwi and it isn't a hapū. It's a collection of iwi it's a collection of hapū that are following a certain kaupapa, a practice in a type of movement as opposed to one that can be seen to be something that is traditional grouping. So Parihaka wasn't able to find a way through a settlement process.

    And it just so happened that Chris Finlayson, who was the Minister of Treaty Settlements-- I think that's the term, treaty settlements-- was also the Attorney-General. And so in a roundabout way, the Chief Justice that had made the decision to allow Bryce to attack Parihaka was the Attorney-General, who's like the Crown's lawyer, made the decision to provide-- to create a reconciliation for Parihaka and the Crown that was based on the rule of law, natural justice and made the decision to reach an agreement with Parihaka.

    And for Parihaka, it wasn't about a settlement in terms of amount of money. And in actual fact, the amount of money that the Crown offered, we just agreed to it, there was very little discussion about it. We simply said, what we need is the Crown not to work against the interests of Parihaka.

    And if the Crown can see value in what Parihaka provides to this country and both in identity, but also in terms of ways forward, in terms of the legacy of what Tohu and Te Whiti were talking about, then we are happy to enter into agreement. And work together to find a future for how we can operate.

    So this happened in 2017, on the 9th of June and hugely supported by iwi from around the country. There were those in Parihaka who didn't agree with us. As far as they were concerned, the overwhelming statement that was made by our community was: Don't trust the Crown, they can't be trusted, this isn't going to work, there's going to be some small print there that's going to all turn to custard.
    And it hasn't really-- it's taken a long time to get down to the point now where we're actually getting things underway. And so people have been holding their breath for three years. That's a long time to hold your breath. But have been holding their breath, waiting, until they can actually see action. Something that came out of that agreement.

    And I'm not saying that it's all clear, and everything's open, and we know where everything is heading because we are very much finding our way. But there is definitely a different environment than Parihaka in the post reconciliation approach. So we'd be able to move away from this constant tension of people saying the Crown, the Crown, the Crown, the Crown. And to say, now we are able to move ahead and to find what is the future of a community such as Parihaka.

    And again I make the point that Parihaka is not just about a place. It was made very clear ‘Hoki atu ki ō koutou kāinga Parihaka mai ai’. Return to your homes and find Parihaka there. Find the way in which these principles of peace can be maintained into the future in your communities as opposed to just focusing on the area that is the community of Parihaka.

    So this is the Parihaka today (a drone image of Parihaka), as I said again, not from Te Pūrepo, but we got wings and put a camera into the sky. This recognises-- this captures the three marae, the active marae. There's about six other marae. Some of them are-- three other marae that are more whānau-based or hapū-based.

    But we have Te Niho o Te Atiawa, the building that I spoke about, where the picture was taken from with the poi group, is the twin gabled house, the green roofed building there. We have Te Paepae o te Raukura, which is at the top with the white building. And then directly in front of us is the original marae that was first made and cleared when Parihaka first began Toroanui Marae, with Rangi Kāpuia, Te Rānui and Mahi Kuare their buildings. So there is Parihaka. That's what are all I want to talk about in terms of the past, and the future, and the present.

    However, I have to admit, I've been down a bit of a rabbit hole in the last week or so-- not the Alice variety, but-- sometimes it's called a counterfactual rabbit hole, where a lot of people have been asking the what-if question. What if this hadn't happened, what would have been the situation?

    What if the Musket Wars that were driven as an arms race throughout the country that completely demolished a lot of the communities around the coast where Tohu and Te Whiti were born, what if those wars hadn't happened? Would we still have found-- and I believe that influenced very strongly Tohu and Te Whiti, to be so strongly committed to peaceful resolution of conflict? So the non-violence movement that was associated with Parihaka, was that found through what took place in terms of the Musket Wars? 21-- almost 20 years of war from raids from the north into the area that moved a lot of Taranaki, they had to escape down here to Pōneke.

    And then the next what-if was, what if the war hadn't begun in Waitara on the 17th of March? What if Te Atiawa had been able to, because the Crown was forcing the sale of Waitara, where the majority of Te Atiawa were living? And the majority of Te Atiawa was saying we want no part of this land sale.
    But the Crown forced through the sale of that. They created the war that then led to the complete destruction, the devastation that most wars entail. And in particular for Parihaka, were the community prior to Parihaka because Parihaka began in beginning of 1866.

    In 1860, most of the people of Parihaka were in Warea. A thriving community for more than 15 years had focused in on building an economic base. Led largely by Te Whiti's granduncle, Paora Kukutai, who was killed in those opening stages of the war in Waireka. But led also by Te Whiti and Tohu, managed a lot of the activities of economic development in Warea.

    So what would have happened if Parihaka or if the war hadn't begun and the people who were in Parihaka had been allowed to develop an economic base, retain the land? Because they knew that the Crown was buying land at about a penny an acre and then selling it for 250 times that with no real improvements other than surveying it up and divvying it out. So a 2 and 1/2 thousand percent increase in revenue is obviously very enticing. But the lands of Taranaki were far more valuable than what the Crown was trying to force Taranaki to sell them at.

    They made the decision in 1854 with the oath that was made Tangata tō mua, whenua tō muri. People will give themselves up before they give their land up. Basically saying: We will refuse and we will put our bodies on the line to ensure that our lands are not lost. Because it is more valuable than ourselves. It is more valuable to future generations to retain.

    So what if the war hadn't begun? But if the war hadn't begun, well, then the community of Warea wouldn't have moved into a position where we are in Parihaka today and created the situation where the traumatised-- the people who were escaping the loss of land, the people who were fighting against the Crown, and wanting to-- and were disillusioned with being warriors, turning that around, and committing to peace.

    Even the people who were working with the Crown, they changed their view, came to Parihaka, and weren't ostracised because of their previous position. But were able to say, we want to commit to a different path, and a different way forward.
    So the war itself created a huge question. And put that upon people and says what is a better way to be able to operate? I'm not saying war is great, but it created the conditions that led to the formation that is Parihaka today.

    The other what-if, and this thing is, what if the Crown hadn't confiscated the whole of Taranaki? So if we look at Taranaki, the 1.275 million acres was eventually confiscated. The plans were all the way through. And you can see Whangamomona is a little bit more isolated than the rest of Taranaki. So the inland places weren't so much of a focus. It was really the places where Māori were living. Right along the coast that was cleared and actively cultivated, that was the focus of the Crown for confiscation. And there is a lot indicating the fact that the Crown was already planning around concepts of confiscation before the war actually started. There were signals that this was coming upon the country, upon Taranaki, Waikato, Tauranga Moana, Whanau-a-Apanui, Tūhoe, ne? Gisborne. Koeranga whenua e riro atu, Here-taunga.

    So the Crown had plans to confiscate lands because those were areas where there was resistance to sale. The Crown had a plan for this country and the Crown didn't-- the plan didn't really include Māori having any position of control or authority in that picture. The Crown's position was that New Zealand was opened for settlement. And the way settlement would take place is to acquire the land and that Māori would simply be compliant. Perhaps, a labour force for what was taking place in the country.

    So what if the land confiscation hadn't taken place? Well, if the land confiscation hadn't taken place, well, then we wouldn't have had the protesting that took place within Parihaka.

    So when Donald McLean who was the minister of Native Affairs at the time made the agreement and made a commitment to Parihaka, that he wouldn't proceed with surveys until land had been set aside, that until he had recognised that most of Ngāruahine and Taranaki iwi hadn't actively participated in the war, and until that was identified and set aside, that he wouldn't proceed with surveying.
    However, what happened in 1878-- this is 13 years, so Parihaka 13 years acting as a sanctuary to the people that came in. Here I am talking about history and yet I'm wanting to focus on the future. I get carried away, sorry.

    So when they crossed the Waingongoro River, it was an indication to the people of Parihaka that the Crown was going to walk into Ngāruahine lands and was going to start surveying.

    And their experience was, is that as soon as they started surveying land, they started to allocate land as payment to soldiers. Because the Crown was pōhara. Wars cost a lot of money. And so instead of employing the imperial troops from England, they hired militia, the local settler armies. And they paid them with land. 50 acres for every year of service for soldiers. 150 acres for every officer for a year of service. And the land that was being surveyed was being allocated as payment for those services.

    And the lands in the area of Ngāruahine, referred to as the Waimate Plains, you want to have a farm on a plain rather than extremely hilly areas. And you want to have it on the coast, where the climate is a lot warmer, closer to the sea than it is closer to a big maunga on your back doorstep. So they made it very clear that they were going to continue with surveys. And so in 1878, Parihaka began its protests. First pulling pegs, then rebuilding fences as the road-building went through gardens, and then ploughing land to demonstrate to the Crown that it didn't recognise the confiscation of those lands.

    The other what-if, that is a major thing for us in Parihaka, what if after the Pāhua if that hadn't taken place, what if the cannon had gone off on that day? What if the Crown had moved forward to remove forcibly everyone? It removed most of the people of Parihaka because most of the people in Parihaka weren't just from Taranaki, they were from iwi from around the country. And so they put Waikato people onto wagons, took them into New Plymouth, and returned them back to Waikato on the steamships that went around the country and told them never to come back into Taranaki and set outposts at Pukearuhe and Waitōtara that stopped any Māori that were coming through to Parihaka, stop them from coming in. So they forcibly removed people from around the country out of Parihaka.

    And what if that hadn't happened? Well, it's hard to say whether Parihaka would have achieved a lot in terms of the confiscation because what happened is that the Crown wasn't interested in going back on its confiscation. It was certainly interested in the settlement of Taranaki lands. And it's certainly interested in the settlement of those other iwi where it had made confiscations.

    But what it did, is it sent Tohu and Te Whiti off prison. When they came back, we had a major split. And there was a number of other imprisonments. But there was a major split within the community. And from what my perspective and other people have different views about it is that the split that occurred was that Tohu felt that the price around the protest and the actions of the Crown was too high a price to pay for our people within Parihaka. And so didn't want to continue but wanted to find other pathways forward and other options to respond to the Crown's actions.

    Whereas Te Whiti supported strongly by others as well, such as Tītokowaru, decided they wanted to keep the acid on the Crown, to keep their feet moving forward, and to continue to protest against what was taking place. And so ended up being returned to prison over and over again and the last group of prisoners coming out of prison in 1898.

    What happened is that of this land, 20% was returned to Taranaki Māori, 20% of that land. And so in the block that was Parihaka, the Parihaka block, determined by the land court, 45,000 acres, 23,000 acres was supposed to be returned back to Parihaka. 23,000 acres on the maunga side of the main road, of that road. Not on the coast, which was better farming environment but in the inland area.

    And then because Parihaka continued even though it had-- this was in the 1890s, it continued to protest and advocate for the return of those lands. As what was agreed by the Crown, continued to have land removed and to a point that today there's around about 5,000 acres that is still retained by our community.
    Much of that land is in leasehold lands. Much of it and a lot of land in Taranaki is under that, was originally perpetual leases and then was converted into a process-- I won't go into it-- but it changed from perpetual leases.

    Much of the land is also tied up in land courts with thousands of owners in quite small blocks. So even Parihaka itself and Parihaka X, there are thousands of owners on a block of land in trying to get movement ahead. Sometimes it's very difficult as to what to do about that.

    But the main thing is this that the Crown kept 40% of the land and forced through as purchases. So much of the land it allocated to owners but allocated to owners that they knew would sell land. And so 40% was sold and 40% it kept as punishment for Taranaki rebelling against the Crown.
    So 20% was returned and that 20% wasn't safe. They continued to be assailed by the land courts, by all sorts of systems that continued to remove that land from their possession.

    What I'd like to do is really focus in on those what-ifs. As really I think is what's driving us today. So what we would say is what if Tohu and Te Whiti's legacy had been recognised by the Crown? What if that legacy had been recognised by society, what would that look like? And so for us in Parihaka we have, as I said before, a range of perspectives and views about what that is.

    Some are very strongly associated with biblical references and are associated with very strong Christian principles. Others are very much focused in on principles of peace. Some around tikanga and cultural values. And others are very much focused in on the concept of community development or all of the above.
    So there's a range of drivers that move our community. But to try and find a way forward, we decided to put aside the vast diversity of those things and to say, what is the legacy of Tohu and Te Whiti? What does that look like?

    And so we went through waiata and statements that have been made by Tohu and Te Whiti. And we distilled out these 10 principles. And I'd like to go over them and then talk about maybe how does that look going forward?

    So the first one, Maung-ā-rongo, that makes sense, ne? So the idea of non-violence. And this was probably the main principle at the beginning of Parihaka. Anyone who came into Parihaka had to commit to non-violence, to not participate in the war, to give up weapons of war, and to commit to peaceful activities. And so non-violent action was very much a rule. So around non-violent conflict resolution.

    Autonomy is the sense that we want to move ahead in terms of how our decision-making processes and make decisions for ourselves. As opposed to-- it's not so much as in terms of separatism but more around the ability to make decisions.
    The need to provide sanctuary. In the time of Tohu and Te Whiti, people will come in who are traumatised, who were landless because of the confiscations, or had been moved off for other reasons.

    And so today we still see that the violence maybe has changed from muskets, and swords, and those sorts, and cannons, into more. The violence is quite often now is poverty, addictions, mental health, a range of issues assail our community and is a form of violence of today. And our whānau was subjected to that.

    Whakaaro-pai is the concept of equality and the idea that when Parihaka began, we had people who were liberated slaves. And the tikanga, they had lost their status because they had been enslaved. But a large number of Taranaki were returned slaves. A large number were warriors, that a large number would-- fought for the Crown.

    So they said put aside all of those stigmas that were formerly attached to you and we all work together for this, for our community. We all work in the gardens. We all do. All of the jobs. There isn't anyone that is above the other. So Tohu and Te Whiti worked alongside everyone else in their activities, alongside other rangatira.

    The idea of ringa-raupā is the concept that we need to really all work hard at this. And all need to participate.

    Motuhake, self-sufficiency, the idea that if you are reliant on people from outside, then you are reliant on their criteria and their norms, who determine what you do forward. So you need to find a way forward to be able to make decisions and it comes through self-sufficiency.

    A huge kōrero repeatedly around Manawa-nui. Tohu and Te Whiti, they didn't romanticise the view that in a short while things are going to be rosy. They understood that this process was something that would take a long time. Maybe they didn't envisage it would take 140 years to reach an agreement or 130, 137 years to reach an agreement with the Crown but they certainly knew this: we needed to have resilience and sustain this way forward.

    Kotahitanga, we all talk about that. But I think Kotahitanga they spoke about is the idea that each iwi had the right to make their own decisions. They didn't tell people to give up their identity. They encouraged each iwi to make their own marae, have their own narratives, have their own kōrero with their waiata groups, but then come together and reach agreement and reconcile his differences and work as collaboratively and reconcile any differences they come across.

    And the last one is Oranga-tonutanga, a large number of our waiata continually talk about Oranga-tonutanga . The way forward is towards the future of Parihaka in the next generations.

    I'd like to say in closing that the concept of Parihaka is about-- how do I put this-- the concept of Parihaka isn't about just Parihaka, the papakāinga. What I think we're getting to with our now community is providing models, or answers, or solutions to the difficulties of how we work as communities again. How do we live in papakāinga with the principles that are guided there that will build communities as opposed to divide and turn us into-- and focus in on ownership.
    So the idea of what does working together-- what are all these principles look like in communities? How do we resolve things like climate change and COVID then how do we respond to those as communities?

    And so we need to find solutions to those and I hope that Parihaka can provide some solutions. But it doesn't mean that we have all of the answers. We simply provide the answers we come up with, and put it out there, and say, do these answers, do these solutions fit your model? Fit your community?
    And we encourage you all to work as communities and to find your Parihaka-tanga in this day and age,nd for the future of your tamariki and your mokopuna. Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tātou.

    [APPLAUSE]

    Tanja Schubert-McArthur:
    Ngā mihi nui ki a koe, Ruakere]. Ngā mihi nui ki a koutou. So we have a little break here for people to leave if they have to. Let me just close with karakia.

    Unuhia, unuhia
    Unuhia ki te uru tapu nui
    Kia wātea, kia māmā, te ngākau, te tinana, te wairua i te ara takatā
    Koia rā e Rongo, whakairia ake ki runga
    Kia tina! TINA! Haumi, hui e! TĀIKI E!

    Ruakere Hond: Me he pātai? Tukuā mai te pātai.

    Audience member 1: Titiro, titiro
    Ki te maunga tītōhea
    Runga o Parihaka Waitotoroa
    Ngāti Moeahu, Ngāti Haupoto
    Ko te tākiritanga i te kahu o Wikitōria
    Kaitoa. Kaitoa.
    Ko Tohu, ko Te Whiti
    Ngā manu e rua
    I patu te hoariri ki te rangimārie
    Kss aue, kss aue
    Ahakoa i te pāhuatanga o Parihaka
    Ue. Ue. Ue. Hā

    Audience member 1: Tēnā koe, matua!

    Ruakere Hond: Tēnā hoa, e tama! Me te mōhio tonū Rerenoa, ana, koia, ko Ngāruahine. When I speak about Ngāruahine, I talk about the generation that is now and the connections that Ngāruahine and Taranaki have together that is, Parihaka. Tēnā koe, e Rere.

    Audience member 2: Tō rourou te rourou ka ora e te iwi e
    Me tēnei te rourou e karanga o te rā
    Te whare tiakina e tū, e tū
    Kei a koe e te mana o te hunga nei
    Tō maunga, kōrero ki a koe Ruakere te tuitui ana, te paiheretia tō iwi, ki ngāi pito o te motu. Kei te tautoko, kei te tautoko, kei te tautoko i a koe. Hei aha te aha, me tū tonu tātou, me pupuri tonu tātou o tātou tikanga. Mehemea ka neke koe i te motu kei konā mātou e āwhina i a koe, mai rā anō, mai rā anō. Ō mahi hoki, he whāngai atu ngā kōrero pēnei ki te nuinga, kia whānui, e tū, e tū e te rangatira.

    Ruakere Hond: Tēnā koe, e kui! The kōrero just heard from our whaea here was around the way in which we walk, we carry our tikanga with us and recognise that each community has its tikanga and is acknowledging the tikanga of Parihaka that has been shared here today.

    So tēnā koe, the main thing is this that we stand with our tikanga, we stand for our tikanga. We stand for our principles and ethics that we live by. And we need to recognise those tēnā koe.

    Ruakere Hond:
    That's a good question. So the question was around if Parihaka is looking to provide models of how communities can work together, is that just Māori communities that is the focus of that development? Or is it more broadly across all communities throughout Aotearoa, potentially the world, ne?

    Depends on how relevant it is, obviously. We definitely look at it from a perspective of communities. We think that we hold views and we're having discussions around things like climate change. How long can we go with models where we continue to ship most of the wealth of the country overseas? I'm not saying that we exclude ourselves from overseas. But the whole idea of using fossil fuels to ship all of the goods around the country when in actual fact, we have the ability of communities to provide most of our needs rather than bringing them into this. So the idea of gardening, we're looking to — which was a huge part of what Parihaka's history was. Because gardening is the concept of peace. Rongo-mā-tāne is the atua associated with peaceful activity. Because you cooperate together, you work together, and you share the benefits.

    So the idea of producing your own food has elements of self-sufficiency. It has elements of rangatiratanga. And I'm not saying that everyone in the world has to start getting out there, although it sounds lovely.

    But even in cities, where you got like some sort of garden and even if you're just producing a little bit, you are actually contributing to utilising it.
    Because when you're producing kai, you're hopefully composting all your waste, rather than throwing it all out. You are sharing that kai with others and they are also picking up on this concept of Rongo.

    So that's one thing. But renewable energy, we're definitely strongly focused in on, how can we work as a community? How can we create a microgrid with the community rather than just focusing on taking electricity off the main grid? How do we produce either through solar panels or wind turbines to be able to provide electricity to the whole community and manage it, that is, as a collective?

    Also things like every house doesn't need to have a washing machine, you know. We need to work towards ideas of having shared laundromats or shared, you know, instead of having dryers, how about a drying room? Or something like that. I don't know. We are still trying to find ways in which we can come together. And the idea that if we have a shared laundromat for the community, one is that it will reduce the amount of power and the expense. And so people can have the economic model fits more to the community.

    But also, we come together a lot more and the more we come together, the stronger our relationships within the community will become. Things like, instead of everyone having a car and everyone driving into town to buy their groceries at the supermarket in New Plymouth, you know, half an hour's drive. 50 kilometres there, 50 kilometres back.

    The idea of having an electric van that goes once a day, goes and collects, everyone orders online, collects their groceries.

    And all I'm saying is that there are numerous problems that communities come across. How do you resolve conflict? How do you deal with drug abuse? How do you deal with mental health issues? How do you deal with whānau who can't afford to live in a certain place? Like either do work on their house because their roof is collapsing or whatever.

    Every community deals with it. But to a large extent we expect the government to come and help with those solutions or we do that as individuals. I think what Parihaka is saying is that every community has the ability to act as a community. And the more we act locally, the more we have an impact on lessening the use of resources, lessening impact on climate, lessening impact on the economic pressures that are put on those who are most poor and most disadvantaged within our communities.

  • Transcript | Part 2

    Ruakere Hond: Tino pai! So the question was around the issue of racism and what can Parihaka contribute? Or what is Parihaka doing that can be seen to be aligned with the work that is responding to the racism that we experience within our communities?

    I think one of the most important things that are so much like a key that's unlocking Parihaka, is we're building a visitor's Experience Centre. We're building a building with the support of government who have provided some funding there to be able to construct this building as a centre where we can present those principles that we talked about, present that history, and create an environment where we can have those conversations.

    For many years, people have spoken about the importance of finding centres where we have peace studies, where we look into peace. Because, I don't know, I don't want to simplify racism because racism is a very complex concept. But a lot of it is driven by ignorance, a lack of awareness. And the idea of providing a centre where people are able to experience Parihaka's, not only Parihaka's history, but Parihaka's aspirations for the future. We would hope to contribute with certainly not the only part of this picture, but we would like to be a part of that response to racism.

    And actually, many of the issues that our communities are facing currently, things such as poverty and that I've just spoken about.

    But racism in particular, we've suffered quite strongly that within the community of Taranaki. The farming community has largely misunderstood our Māori community has seen the confiscation of land and has acted very antagonistically towards Parihaka in the past. Or simply ignored and made invisible. And people living just down the road from Parihaka, just simply call it the pā where the ’Māoris’ go.

    And that's the way it's always been seen. But as the voice, as Māori start to have a voice in that space, quite often it draws out those things that are sometimes hidden in people's kitchens, in living rooms, and become part of national discussion.

    So I think the most important thing is, and I think it's good that those statements come out into the open. We put it into the light of day, and sterilise it, and then say, well, this is what is the actual answer. Our truth is our truth. What is your truth? You know, and then say, well, how do we actually find a reconciliation of those two different perspectives?

    So the visitors centre, we haven't got a name for it yet because we name it once the building is opened. Hopefully, build over the next two years. We'll be able to carry these sorts of principles, and carry these sorts of narratives, and provide a space to have those discussions on racism and many other things that we're coping with today.

    Ruakere Hond: Tēnā koe. It's a really good question. And we have been talking about that for quite a while. It was raised by a number of people. Some people have advocated getting rid of Guy Fawkes' Day and calling it Bryce' Day. [LAUGHTER] I think that defeats the purpose of getting rid of Guy Fawkes' Day. Really, realistically, Guy Fawkes' Day is like Halloween and these other things. How relevant are they in people's lives?

    The idea of recognising our local history and our local identity is really the focus of I think any discussion that is associated with the Parihaka Day. We have quite vast differences of opinions about our Parihaka Day. And the biggest concern is that Parihaka becomes iconised-- was that the word? Turned into an icon then it loses its real potential because it becomes simplified to such event, reified in a way that it only means this. Whereas, recognising that it is something that is evolving.

    So there are those who make very, very strong arguments that a Parihaka Day is a way in which we can recognise history. Because Parihaka wasn't just about Parihaka. It was also about the soldiers that came in there and the effects it had on them.

    And a number of people talk about in their own whakapapa. They have an ancestor who was one of the soldiers who came on to Parihaka. And when we had the reconciliation on the day, there was probably about 50 descendants of people who had their ancestors -- were part of the invading force.

    And when Chris Finlayson read out his apology, they all asked if they could stand and show their support. Not so much in terms of apologising for what their ancestors did but, basically, saying this generation is saying that we support these statements that have been made in terms of an apology.

    Obviously, the reasons why people participated in the attack on Parihaka were diverse as well. Sometimes they were simply soldiers who were trying to get land to survive. But there were, obviously, other bigger narratives.

    So the idea of a Parihaka Day, maybe it's better to be called a Peace Day. And it's associated with the day. Because everyone, every iwi, and every community has narratives of peace. You can't be a community without having a concept, some form of concept, of what peace is. How you engage with each other and recognise each other's mana.

    Generally, if you don't have that concept of peace you don't last long as a community, or it's more of a dictatorship, or maybe a prison. But the idea of a day of peace. And on many places around the world, they have days of peace whether that's Martin Luther King Day or whatever.

    If we are able to find a way in which it's not all about Parihaka. Because we struggle under the weight of everyone's attention being focused in on Parihaka. And we're only just trying to survive ourselves and find answers to these questions.

    I think that the attention needs to be turned on everyone's communities. And everyone asks the question what does peace mean for our whānau? What does peace mean for our neighbourhood?

    Do we actually support our kuia just down the road who's struggling to mow lawns, or whatever, or struggling to weed your gardens? I'm not saying it's like a boy scouts sort of thing, you know, a "do a good deed" every day.

    I'm really saying is how does the community operate under these principles of peace? And if that can be associated, I personally, and again I'm only one person, would support the idea of the 5th of November getting rid of the fireworks. I don't like fireworks anyway.

    I certainly don't like the idea of putting Guy on a - how many times he's been burned at the stake. The idea that we're celebrating the fact that the British government managed to destroy a coup. That's history long gone that doesn't really relate to us in this country. So pai te pātai,is a good question. Does a Parihaka Day have relevance for the country? Well, I'd like to see it as a peace day. And just have it ever on a day like the 5th of November.

    And then maybe that becomes a peace week like Māori language week. And it's actually focusing on what we do as communities for that week to build and strengthen our support for each other.

    Ruakere Hond: What about a statue? We've got Mahatma Gandhi down there by the train station. That's a lot of debate within our community as well. Because there are some within the community that don't think there is a potential for Tohu and Te Whiti to become almost idolised. And having a statue, they weren't really in support of it in their time. They didn't really even like having their photos taken. And they discouraged building effigies and carvings that then the focus went on those things.

    I think the key thing is this that is there a need for a peace monument? Is there a need to recognise the way in which each iwi, each community, each region had activities of peace that also should be given as much status as any statue of Tohu and Te Whiti could ever have? Just recently, I'm not sure how long ago, but Chris Finlayson was talking about it on national radio, just not long ago, about the unveiling of the Statue of James K Baxter's father, Archibald, is it?

    [AUDIENCE MEMBER HELPS OUT ]

    Archibald Baxter is a conscientious objector in the First World War in a horrendous war. And stood up against huge pressure. I mean, who stands against the country standing as one against the common enemy. And says, I stand instead for peace. That takes real guts and stamina.

    So I don't know what a statue of Archibald Baxter does for peace. But if we don't have the conversations about what his background is within, then a statue is wasted.

    Ruakere Hond: Kia ora mai. That's the question is this around that I spoke about the Musket Wars and the conflict and that influence potentially influenced Tohu and Te Whiti's views on peace. And also the other influences maybe there were other iwi or other traditional values that influenced their notions of peace.

    And then the second question was around the idea of if there is a peace centre, can it be perceived that it would be a place where groups could come, they have conflicts and are able to use it as a site for reconciliations of those difference needs. So like a managed or a facilitated discussion in an environment that could be associated with principles of peace.

    We don't have a lot of time to go through the whole thing with the Musket Wars but I would hold the view that there are a number of influences. The first one is this that Te Whiti's father was killed just after he had been born. So he was a newborn baby. His father was killed in one of those attacks. His mother was forced to leave the area where they were and, basically, go on the run. She ended up in Ngāruahine which then became the strong relationship with Ngāruahine.
    And Tohu Kakahi is named after Te Whiti's father who was killed. So even though Tohu Kakahi is an uncle of Te Whiti, he's a first cousin of Te Whiti's father. But he was born after Te Whiti. Although some say before Te Whiti. But he was named Hone Kakahi. Tohu Kakahi was Te Whiti's father. And he was given that name. I would assume to partly remember Tohu Kakahi and the fact that he was killed at around the time of his birth.

    But I think the point that I'd like to make is that firstly, they escaped from that violence, they escaped from those attacks, they came down here to Wellington. Although that period is a little bit fuzzy around the details.
    We know that they became involved with the schools, and they learnt to read and write. They learnt-- going to a school when there's only one book in the library and it's the Bible. You read it from cover to cover. So they knew the Bible. You know, every aspect of it.

    And so when Riemenschneider came to Warea, they arrived there as well as young fellows, as leaders-in-waiting. Their focus was cultivation. So the association of Rongo and agricultural activity was super-powerful for them.

    They were there to build an economic capacity to be able to stand on their own two feet again. And I'm not talking about them as individuals but them as a community. So Riemenschneider was very much a part of their influence as well, saying, put aside violence. Don't get involved in the war, or the conflict that's take-- well, the war hadn't started by then, but the conflict that was taking place.

    So I think all of those things as well as the different groups such as Tāwhiao coming through had a huge influence. Definitely Te Ua Haumeene and his influence when Lord Worsley ran aground and the way in which the role he played. So all of those things had a part to play in their perception of peace.

    But I think in terms of-- I don't know what you'd call it-- a reconciliation centre, maybe a place to resolve conflict. I'm a little bit reluctant to dive into that simply because we have to resolve our own conflicts within our own community. We're not a community that is all well at the moment.

    When it was asked of our community of all of the things that you'd like to do, there was 36 projects were put on the table. You know, repair the water, fix people's houses, get gardens going again, and there was 36 of them.

    And ask people what was the number one priority, the number one priority was respond to historical trauma. Resolve historical trauma that people within Parihaka are traumatised. They've fought for years and years to try and find it. And sometimes when you get rid of, I'll say an enemy, because the Crown has been the focus of enemy, then that has been the problem, has been always the Crown. Well, then now the problem is ourselves. How do we find a way to restore ourselves into a position of power? Because we've always, to a certain extent, had a reason to have the addictions, and the sorts of issues, and the conflicts, and the trauma that we all.

    And so I would say, definitely, I'd like to see that as a reconciliation centre. However, I'd like to work on ourselves first to resolve some of those traumas. And to have practices that then become principles of how we've provide that as a service. It sounds like-- it sounds strange to call it a service. But as an opportunity for groups to resolve the conflict.

    Kua nui pea mō tēnei wā. We've run out of time. Kua tae ki te haurua i te tahi. Kua oti te karakia, karakia i a Huirangi Waikerepuru. Huirangi had a huge influence over me and many others in Taranaki. And he always spoke about peace. He talked a lot about water. And the importance of water. But water is actually a concept of peace. It's about recognising our environment. And we need to find as they see it in their time: He maunga-ā-rongo ki runga i te whenua, he maunga-ā-rongo ki runga i te tāngata If we find peace in our land and our environment we will provide and forge peace among ourselves. And most of our conflicts are found in the land and our environment. And the sort of quarrels we have about who owns it and who runs it and who has control over it. Tēnā koutou, tēnā tatou.

    [APPLAUSE]

    Any errors with the transcript, let us know and we will fix them. Email us at digital-services@dia.govt.nz

Transcript | Part 1

Speakers

Paul Diamond, Tanja Schubert-McArthur, Ruakere Hond

Paul Diamond: Tēnā tātou. E te tuatahi, ka timata tātou me te karakia. Nā reira:

Whakataka te hau ki te uru
Whakataka te hau ki te tonga
Kia mākinakina ki uta
Kia mātaratara ki tai
E hī ake ana te atākura
He tio, he huka, he hau hū
Tīhei mauri ora!

Tēnā tātou.
Anō te pai, te āhuareka o te noho tahi o ngā tuakana me ngā teina i runga i te whakaaro kotahi. Tuatahi, ka mihi ahau ki ngā mate kua hinga ki te toki o Aituā. Haere koutou ki te moana nui, te rerenga o ngā waka i hoehoea ai e rātou mā, ka ngaro i te tirohanga kanohi. Heoi anō, e mau tonu ana i ngā tōpitopito o te ngākau.

Āpiti hono, tātai hono, rātou te hunga mate ki a rātou. Āpiti hono, tātai hono, tātou te hunga ora ki a tātou katoa. Kua huihui mai tātou i tēnei rūma, Taiwhanga Kauhau, kei te papa e kīia nei, ko Tiakiwai. Ko Te Ahumairangi te papa ki runga.
Ko Tiakiwai te awa iti e rere atu ki te moana, te Whanga-nui-ā-Tara. Ko Te Ahumairangi te hiwi kei korā. Nā ngā mana whenua o te rohe nei i tapainga ēnei tohu whenua.

Nā reira, ngā tāngata o te raukura, Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika, ka nui te mihi ki a koutou katoa. Ka mihi hoki ki te kaupapa o te rā, tēnei kaupapa e kōrero nei, ko E oho! Kia noho tahi, kia whakarongo, kia kōrero, kia rere ngā whakawhiti whakaaro e pā ana ki te taonga rā, Te Tiriti. Kia whakaohooho i a tātou.

Tēnei rā, te rā o te Pāhuatanga, i whakaohooho te whenua, i te tau 1881. Me te mea nei, e pāorooro ana tonu taua rā. Hei te rā nei, ka tuku mihi maioha ki tā tātou nei kaikōrero, tākuta Ruakere Hond, nō Taranaki, Ngāti Ruanui, Whānua ā-Apanui.

E te rangatira, Ruakere, nau mai anō ki te whare nei. Mauria mai ō pūkenga, ō kōrero hoki, kia whakaohooho i a tātou. I te ahiahi nei ka hoki aku mahara ki tō kauhau i tērā tau kei te whare nei. Ka whakaaro ake ahau ki te Noema i tērā tau, ki te wā i tū mātou ko tōku hoamahi ko Lynette Shum, kei Te Pūrepo. He pūmaharatanga kahurangi tērā mōku. Nā mātou te hōnore ka taea e koe te whai wā kia tuku kōrero kei te whare nei.

Ngā mihi hoki ki a koutou e te whakaminenga, kua whakarauika mai nei i te ahiahi nei. Nā reira, tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou katoa.

Waiata tautoko: Kōkiri Kōkiri Kōkiri composed by Bella Tarawhiti

Kōkiri Kōkiri Kōkiri (composed by Bella Tarawhiti)

Whakarongo ake au ki ngā reo o te motu
e karanga mai ana huakina huakina te whare ē
ka oti ka oti ngā mahi ē
haere mai e te iwi kia piri tāua
kia ki te atu ai ngā kupu whakairi ē
ēnei ngā wariu o ngā mahi tuhinga
hei mahi ketuketu
ngā whakaaro rerekē
ko hanga whakatū ngā aria ki te iwi
e kore e mimiti he puna wairua ē
he puna wairua ē

Paul Diamond: Kia ora koutou. Good afternoon. My name is Paul Diamond. I'm the Māori curator at the Alexander Turnbull Library. And just to summarise what I've just said in the short mihi to begin our session today was just acknowledging, as we do, those who've passed beyond the veil, bringing us back to the realm of the living.

Acknowledging mana whenua of this rohe where the library is situated. And acknowledging this kaupapa that's brought us together, this E oho! series that's been a terrific thing that the library has been doing.

And acknowledging that we're here today on the anniversary of the invasion day of Parihaka in 1881, a year to the day that Ruakere — we were lucky enough to have Ruakere addressing us on that day as well.

And welcoming him back and acknowledging that for me, personally, I was also remembering that last November Lynette and I were at Parihaka. I was helping Lynette with the oral history workshop that she was delivering and we had time,and Ruakere had time to take us to Te Pūrepo, the hill which was where a lot of the photos of Parihaka are taken from and has a special significance in the day that we're remembering today.

And just to acknowledge that the Library is part of a kaupapa called Te Huanga ō Rongo. And it was a 2017 relationship agreement between Crown parties, local authorities, and Parihaka that includes assistance towards initiatives such as healing and reconciliation, infrastructure, and cultural development. And it's been for me, personally, a huge privilege to be involved with that to find out ways that these various groups can support the aspirations which some of the most visionary and exciting that I've come across in my role here in the Library.

And I came across a great quote from Ruakere in an E-Tangata interview where he said, "Anything we do, if we have the right principles, is doing the right thing." And I think that's what I found so interesting in listening to the kōrero]. the strong grounding in these really amazing principles that make the history come alive and remind us of its relevance today.

So now I'm going to hand over to my colleague Dr. Tanja Schubert-McArthur who is actually the organiser and the brains behind this E oho! Waitangi series. She'll introduce Ruakere and also tell you more about the remaining talks in the series. Kia ora over to you.

Tanja Schubert-McArthur: Nau mai, haere mai ki Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa. Welcome everybody to National Library, today, on a very significant day. Thank you, Paul, for the introduction. So I'm a learning facilitator here and I feel really privileged to be able to put on this series because we have great discussions and we hear from amazing speakers.

Now I'd like to announce that there's only one more E oho! talk left in this year but we will continue next year. So on the 18th of November, the topic of the talk is Treaty and Tamariki. And the speaker is Assistant Māori Children's Commissioner Glenis Philip-Barbara. So that should be another interesting one. Put it in your calendar and please book your seat because we can only allow 84 people at the moment. So then we start again in February 2022. Keep an eye on our website.

Today on the 5th of November 1881, the small Māori settlement of Parihaka in Taranaki was invaded by 1,600 troops. And their leaders, Te Whiti o Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi, were imprisoned without trial. What happened at Parihaka was one of the darkest moments in New Zealand's history.

But it gives me hope that we have gathered here today to remember Parihaka 140 years later. And often people say when they hear about Parihaka, for example, on our He Tohu tours, why haven't I been told? Why haven't I learned at school? And I think we can see a change with the curriculum coming in effect next year but also occasions like this where people gather and remember.

Ruakere Hond will be giving the presentation shortly. At 1 o'clock we give people who have other meetings, perhaps, to go to those. So we can leave quietly then. And but it'd be great if you can stay for the closing karakia that happens at 1 o'clock.

After that, we'd like to have time for discussion and questions, so you're welcome to stay on. And by 1:30 we should be all out of here because there's another group coming into the space. You could probably keep having your conversations upstairs or in the cafe.

Now let me introduce our speaker. Dr Ruakere Hond is a longstanding advocate of te reo Māori and a key supporter of the Parihaka community. He has held several leadership roles in Māori language organisations, including Te Reo o Taranaki, Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi and Te Ataarangi. He has served two terms as a member of the Te Taura Whiri i te reo Māori and is currently a Board member of Te Mātāwai, which leads implementation of the Maihi Māori language strategy. He was instrumental in working to achieve reconciliation between the Crown and the Parihaka community. He is also a member of the Waitangi Tribunal.

Please put together your hands for Ruakere Hond.

[APPLAUSE]

Ruakere Hond: Timata atu i te karakia nei i a Whakataka te Hau. I tēnei wiki i rongo a Taranaki i te hau, te kaha o te hau. Nō reira ka whai pērā te ia o taku karakia mō te hau tonu. Tīkina atu te karakia o Whare-matangi. He tupuna o taku hapū nei o Ngā Māhanga-a-Tāiri, otirā o Kurahaupō waka, o Taranaki iwi. E pēnei ana te taki, he wāhanga o tana karakia.

E rere e te hau whenua,
he hau whenua, he hau moana.
Whakaroro ki tai tonga, ki tai māuru,
ki te iho tū, ki te iho whenua,
ki te iho tāngata nā Hine-ahu-one.

Koirā te kaupapa o taku kōrero. I roto o Parihaka ka aro atu ki te tikanga, arā, ko te iho tū. Ka aro atu ki te whenua, arā, ko te iho whenua. Otirā ko te kaupapa tangata koia tātou e hui tahi nei, ana, ko te iho tāngata, ko Hine-ahu-one te timatanga o tātou te tangata ki te ao.

Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tēnā tātou katoa.

I runga anō i te pai o te waiata, whakaaro nei au he kīnaki ki taku kōrero ka tīkina atu te kōrero a ngā tamariki i te wā i haere mai ai ngā hōia ki runga i a Parihaka. Ehara i te waiata engari he taki, nō reira ka takina e au, ana i tēnei wā.

Kua hari, kua koa,
Kua tū te tikanga
Kua haurangi katoa mai te ao nei e

Kua hari, kua koa,
Kua tū te tikanga
Kua haurangi katoa mai te ao nei e

Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou. Tēnā koe Pāora, te whakatau mai i a au i runga i a Tiakiwai, ana, te whare e tū nei. Otirā Ahumairangi e tū nei, e whakamaru i a tātou i te rangi nei. Tēnā koutou, tēnā tātou.

E oho! I was thinking this morning, 5 o'clock this morning, e oho!. Not that I had to wake up at that time but I wake up quite often at that time. And one of the things that came into my mind that 140 years ago at around exactly that time the bugle was sounded at Pungarehu which was a signal to the troops to begin their descent upon Parihaka.

And so, 140 years ago, five generations in my whānau — I'm the fifth generation from that time — the troops marched to the sound of that bugle. And for Parihaka, the bugle was the symbol, was the sound, not of the motivation of the soldiers but the beginning of the destruction of what they were seeking to achieve, and that the fight had just got real. The fight was just starting to escalate to another level. And that level was — prior to the 5th of November, the actions of Parihaka was to stand its ground and to protest against the injustice of the confiscation of lands. So on this day, 140 years ago, at 5 o'clock in the morning, well, that's when I woke up.

Ka oho a Parihaka ki tērā kaupapa, ana, ko te rironga o te whenua. However, we say ‘Ka riro te whenua’. So in my kōrero I referred to the whenua and the people. Te rironga o te whenua, he rerekē, i te rironga o te tangata.

So land can be lost but it's not lost in the same way we lose people in the generations upon the land. The land is still there except it's lost from the control and the authority of the people that were formerly associated with it. So tēnā koutou.

I'd like to begin with the concept. I'll get my first image up here. I'd like to begin with a concept that in some ways Parihaka is getting a little bit tired of talking about our history. And the difficulty about talking about history is it's located in the past.

And yet the community itself is very much located in the present. And our focus is not so much focused in on the present, but it's very much focused in on the future. And so when we talk about Parihaka, I like to use this photo as a starting point, is that we recognise our past. But the beauty about our past is it provides a narrative of how we should act in the present and how we should focus in on the future.

The person in there that's very much a focus not only just in terms of the camera's focus but also the focus for our people is Te Whetū Moeahu, key leader of Parihaka. A key leader prior to Parihaka as well and that he later led the people of Taranaki in terms of resisting and fighting against what the Crown was doing in their community. He was very much a leader, a warrior, in terms of war and very much a part of the ambush on Brady, Captain Brady and others. So he was right there in the middle of that.

But when he came to Parihaka, he came to Parihaka and moved away from the violence of war and committed himself to a focus for peace. And he's leading this wonderful kapa outside of Te Niho o Te Atiawa, the house that was built by the people of Te Atiawa to restore again that confidence in those aspirations that were trashed through the process of the pāhua.

So the occupation of Parihaka for almost four years by the troops and the control of the community for that period of time when the constabulary-- when the troops finally left Parihaka. The big question is, where is Parihaka now?
Most of the houses had fallen into disrepair because people weren't able to go to the bush to get the materials to be able to repair their buildings. And at the same time, many of the people have been forced out of Parihaka and were not allowed to return into the community.

So one of the first things that was done by many of the iwi, Te Atiawa included was to pool their resources. And they didn't have a lot of resources but they pooled their resources to build buildings like Te Atiawa to say that the way forward was to continue with development and growth. And to show the government that Parihaka was looking towards the future, not in terms of antagonism towards the Crown, but trying to work with a future and find a way forward for the people of Parihaka.

So one of the beautiful things about this picture is, to me, it encapsulates that concept. This is after the pāhua. This is when the people were returning. And you can see that our wāhine here supported by our tāne, but our wāhine carrying poi. These are their narratives that they put into songs. The concern within Parihaka was that when people were standing up and writing down what Tohu and Te Whiti was saying in the community, it was often ending up in the hands of government and be mistranslated. Some would say on purpose was being misinterpreted and turned into something that was very negative.

So what Tohu and Te Whiti did and other leaders as well within Parihaka is encourage our communities to put their words into waiata and in those times the waiata not much attention was given to waiata.

One is that the waiata was very formal language, creative language. So sometimes it was very difficult to interpret but it was also largely seen as simply entertainment.

But for the community, the waiata were a key element of retaining those narratives, retaining those statements that were made by our communities that continue to give them direction into the future. And we know this because the next generation-- the next picture, is just as important as this one.

And it's this one. They ensured that-- this is really my great grandmother's generation. They ensured the next generation learnt those waiata and passed that kōrero down. This was our library. This was our pūna mātauranga] was within the numerous waiata. We only sing probably about 30 of them now but there are at least 80 that have been recorded. And there were many, many more with the numerous kapa haka.

Each iwi had their own rōpū that carried their own narratives. Tohu and Te Whiti-- and they are the leaders of Parihaka-- didn't tell each iwi this is what you have to believe. This is what you have to follow. They said it's up to you to determine what that way is forward.

Because Parihaka wasn't a place as such. It was very much a set of principles, a set of direction for the community to follow and to find their way to make sense of the world in that post-Pāhua environment. So the waiata themselves create it and provide it.

I would also like to make the point that while I'm standing here, in no way do I speak for all of Parihaka. Parihaka is as diverse as our communities out there. You walk outside the door and you will find numerous people. I'm not talking about misinformation and narratives that are occurring now with conspiracy theories and the like. I'm talking really around just people's reality are as diverse in Parihaka as they are diverse in our communities now.

And so I can only talk about this from what I have experienced and the people I have had conversations with in the way that I have made sense of our post-Pāhua environment.

Kei te pai? I'm going to try and get through this quickly. So that we can get into the good stuff, which is-- I'm going to move away from talking about the history and talking to what is-- where is Parihaka heading from my perspective.
This is one of the earliest pictures that has been taken of Parihaka. And as Paul rightly spoke about, most of these pictures were taken from Te Pūrepo, the large hill which is for obvious reasons the troops put their cannon on top because it's the best hill to be able to see the whole community from. And they directed their cannon at the people who were sitting directly in front of them.

But I would think probably one of the reasons why this hill is so good for taking photos is that the backdrop is looking directly towards Taranaki and the community is right in front of it. So it creates the perfect environment for capturing what is the community.

You can see from this image and the following image as well is that the majority of the houses are made in traditional way with either raupō or wīwī roofs sometimes with tōtara bark as well, with ponga walls. And this is the way that they create it. And you can see the houses are so close together. So many people living in this community.

And we have here another image around the same time. But the first house you can see, European style house was Miti Mai Te Arero. You can see the houses there up on top of the hill built with the strong support-- the leadership of Te Whetū Moeahu, the person I spoke about in front of the poi group. And this was very much a house that was built by the people of Taranaki iwi as a demonstration of their support. This is the way Parihaka would have looked when the troops marched into Parihaka on the 5th of November in 1881.

However, after 1881 when Parihaka started to rebuild itself, you can see there's a lot fewer houses and you can start seeing more European style houses. I would think that one of the main reasons why more Western style houses were being built was a way in which trying to demonstrate to the world that Parihaka was wanting to move forward. It was to move forward with things like electricity, with running water, and gas lights. All of those sorts of things that for many of the communities around Taranaki, they hadn't become part of the way in which communities-- their experiences, in the way they lived. So Parihaka was very much attempting to show the world that Parihaka wasn't about protesting and staying in the past but was very much focused in on future.

And this is a picture at around the time around 1900. And again you can see a definite change in the style of houses and the way in which we lived.

This is a picture of the-- which looks very different to the others. It's not taken from the hill on top of Te Pūrepo but from a drone on the day of the signing of the reconciliation agreement with the Crown.

For at least five times, the Crown, Helen Clark, and others had stood up at hui and said, I would like to stand and make a formal apology. And our kaumātua within Parihaka had said, that is not how an apology is done. An apology is far more in depth than that. You need to outline quite clearly what it is that you're apologising for. And not just an apology and mapping out what it is that the apology relates to, but also what is going to be done to move forward with it. E mihi atu ki a koe (pointing to Ian Hicks of Arawhiti), e hoa me te mōhio tonu i reira koe, me te Kaupapa i takina ki reira i te taha o Chris Finlayson.

The thing that I marvel about that day is that at time of the Pāhua the greatest impediment to the Pāhua was actually the governor-general. Governor-general at the time, Gordon, was the governor-general who refused-- who objected to going ahead with the challenging and the destruction of Parihaka.

And so the government waited. This is Gore Brown, and obviously Bryce, and others, Rolleston, and others waited until the governor-general was out of the country visiting Pacific Islands. And under the terms of that time because the governor-general had to sign off all legislation in the country and he was refusing to go ahead and agree to it, they waited until he left the country. And under the terms of the governor-general's powers was that the chief justice would then take over the responsibility for signing off all laws, who we all know is, well-- Prendergast, who was infamous really for very strong attitudes. And his landmark case that set a precedent that nullified the treaty within courts, in this case between Wī Parata and the church, Anglican church. And a case very close to, obviously, here Te-Whanganui-a-Tara. But Prendergast was jumping at the bit to agree to this law, to the decision made in courts that then gave Bryce the right to form his attacking force and then attack Parihaka on the 5th of November.

But the thing that I marvel about is that because Parihaka didn't fit into the settlement structure-- the settlement is around large natural groupings which are iwi and hapū and Parihaka technically isn't an iwi and it isn't a hapū. It's a collection of iwi it's a collection of hapū that are following a certain kaupapa, a practice in a type of movement as opposed to one that can be seen to be something that is traditional grouping. So Parihaka wasn't able to find a way through a settlement process.

And it just so happened that Chris Finlayson, who was the Minister of Treaty Settlements-- I think that's the term, treaty settlements-- was also the Attorney-General. And so in a roundabout way, the Chief Justice that had made the decision to allow Bryce to attack Parihaka was the Attorney-General, who's like the Crown's lawyer, made the decision to provide-- to create a reconciliation for Parihaka and the Crown that was based on the rule of law, natural justice and made the decision to reach an agreement with Parihaka.

And for Parihaka, it wasn't about a settlement in terms of amount of money. And in actual fact, the amount of money that the Crown offered, we just agreed to it, there was very little discussion about it. We simply said, what we need is the Crown not to work against the interests of Parihaka.

And if the Crown can see value in what Parihaka provides to this country and both in identity, but also in terms of ways forward, in terms of the legacy of what Tohu and Te Whiti were talking about, then we are happy to enter into agreement. And work together to find a future for how we can operate.

So this happened in 2017, on the 9th of June and hugely supported by iwi from around the country. There were those in Parihaka who didn't agree with us. As far as they were concerned, the overwhelming statement that was made by our community was: Don't trust the Crown, they can't be trusted, this isn't going to work, there's going to be some small print there that's going to all turn to custard.
And it hasn't really-- it's taken a long time to get down to the point now where we're actually getting things underway. And so people have been holding their breath for three years. That's a long time to hold your breath. But have been holding their breath, waiting, until they can actually see action. Something that came out of that agreement.

And I'm not saying that it's all clear, and everything's open, and we know where everything is heading because we are very much finding our way. But there is definitely a different environment than Parihaka in the post reconciliation approach. So we'd be able to move away from this constant tension of people saying the Crown, the Crown, the Crown, the Crown. And to say, now we are able to move ahead and to find what is the future of a community such as Parihaka.

And again I make the point that Parihaka is not just about a place. It was made very clear ‘Hoki atu ki ō koutou kāinga Parihaka mai ai’. Return to your homes and find Parihaka there. Find the way in which these principles of peace can be maintained into the future in your communities as opposed to just focusing on the area that is the community of Parihaka.

So this is the Parihaka today (a drone image of Parihaka), as I said again, not from Te Pūrepo, but we got wings and put a camera into the sky. This recognises-- this captures the three marae, the active marae. There's about six other marae. Some of them are-- three other marae that are more whānau-based or hapū-based.

But we have Te Niho o Te Atiawa, the building that I spoke about, where the picture was taken from with the poi group, is the twin gabled house, the green roofed building there. We have Te Paepae o te Raukura, which is at the top with the white building. And then directly in front of us is the original marae that was first made and cleared when Parihaka first began Toroanui Marae, with Rangi Kāpuia, Te Rānui and Mahi Kuare their buildings. So there is Parihaka. That's what are all I want to talk about in terms of the past, and the future, and the present.

However, I have to admit, I've been down a bit of a rabbit hole in the last week or so-- not the Alice variety, but-- sometimes it's called a counterfactual rabbit hole, where a lot of people have been asking the what-if question. What if this hadn't happened, what would have been the situation?

What if the Musket Wars that were driven as an arms race throughout the country that completely demolished a lot of the communities around the coast where Tohu and Te Whiti were born, what if those wars hadn't happened? Would we still have found-- and I believe that influenced very strongly Tohu and Te Whiti, to be so strongly committed to peaceful resolution of conflict? So the non-violence movement that was associated with Parihaka, was that found through what took place in terms of the Musket Wars? 21-- almost 20 years of war from raids from the north into the area that moved a lot of Taranaki, they had to escape down here to Pōneke.

And then the next what-if was, what if the war hadn't begun in Waitara on the 17th of March? What if Te Atiawa had been able to, because the Crown was forcing the sale of Waitara, where the majority of Te Atiawa were living? And the majority of Te Atiawa was saying we want no part of this land sale.
But the Crown forced through the sale of that. They created the war that then led to the complete destruction, the devastation that most wars entail. And in particular for Parihaka, were the community prior to Parihaka because Parihaka began in beginning of 1866.

In 1860, most of the people of Parihaka were in Warea. A thriving community for more than 15 years had focused in on building an economic base. Led largely by Te Whiti's granduncle, Paora Kukutai, who was killed in those opening stages of the war in Waireka. But led also by Te Whiti and Tohu, managed a lot of the activities of economic development in Warea.

So what would have happened if Parihaka or if the war hadn't begun and the people who were in Parihaka had been allowed to develop an economic base, retain the land? Because they knew that the Crown was buying land at about a penny an acre and then selling it for 250 times that with no real improvements other than surveying it up and divvying it out. So a 2 and 1/2 thousand percent increase in revenue is obviously very enticing. But the lands of Taranaki were far more valuable than what the Crown was trying to force Taranaki to sell them at.

They made the decision in 1854 with the oath that was made Tangata tō mua, whenua tō muri. People will give themselves up before they give their land up. Basically saying: We will refuse and we will put our bodies on the line to ensure that our lands are not lost. Because it is more valuable than ourselves. It is more valuable to future generations to retain.

So what if the war hadn't begun? But if the war hadn't begun, well, then the community of Warea wouldn't have moved into a position where we are in Parihaka today and created the situation where the traumatised-- the people who were escaping the loss of land, the people who were fighting against the Crown, and wanting to-- and were disillusioned with being warriors, turning that around, and committing to peace.

Even the people who were working with the Crown, they changed their view, came to Parihaka, and weren't ostracised because of their previous position. But were able to say, we want to commit to a different path, and a different way forward.
So the war itself created a huge question. And put that upon people and says what is a better way to be able to operate? I'm not saying war is great, but it created the conditions that led to the formation that is Parihaka today.

The other what-if, and this thing is, what if the Crown hadn't confiscated the whole of Taranaki? So if we look at Taranaki, the 1.275 million acres was eventually confiscated. The plans were all the way through. And you can see Whangamomona is a little bit more isolated than the rest of Taranaki. So the inland places weren't so much of a focus. It was really the places where Māori were living. Right along the coast that was cleared and actively cultivated, that was the focus of the Crown for confiscation. And there is a lot indicating the fact that the Crown was already planning around concepts of confiscation before the war actually started. There were signals that this was coming upon the country, upon Taranaki, Waikato, Tauranga Moana, Whanau-a-Apanui, Tūhoe, ne? Gisborne. Koeranga whenua e riro atu, Here-taunga.

So the Crown had plans to confiscate lands because those were areas where there was resistance to sale. The Crown had a plan for this country and the Crown didn't-- the plan didn't really include Māori having any position of control or authority in that picture. The Crown's position was that New Zealand was opened for settlement. And the way settlement would take place is to acquire the land and that Māori would simply be compliant. Perhaps, a labour force for what was taking place in the country.

So what if the land confiscation hadn't taken place? Well, if the land confiscation hadn't taken place, well, then we wouldn't have had the protesting that took place within Parihaka.

So when Donald McLean who was the minister of Native Affairs at the time made the agreement and made a commitment to Parihaka, that he wouldn't proceed with surveys until land had been set aside, that until he had recognised that most of Ngāruahine and Taranaki iwi hadn't actively participated in the war, and until that was identified and set aside, that he wouldn't proceed with surveying.
However, what happened in 1878-- this is 13 years, so Parihaka 13 years acting as a sanctuary to the people that came in. Here I am talking about history and yet I'm wanting to focus on the future. I get carried away, sorry.

So when they crossed the Waingongoro River, it was an indication to the people of Parihaka that the Crown was going to walk into Ngāruahine lands and was going to start surveying.

And their experience was, is that as soon as they started surveying land, they started to allocate land as payment to soldiers. Because the Crown was pōhara. Wars cost a lot of money. And so instead of employing the imperial troops from England, they hired militia, the local settler armies. And they paid them with land. 50 acres for every year of service for soldiers. 150 acres for every officer for a year of service. And the land that was being surveyed was being allocated as payment for those services.

And the lands in the area of Ngāruahine, referred to as the Waimate Plains, you want to have a farm on a plain rather than extremely hilly areas. And you want to have it on the coast, where the climate is a lot warmer, closer to the sea than it is closer to a big maunga on your back doorstep. So they made it very clear that they were going to continue with surveys. And so in 1878, Parihaka began its protests. First pulling pegs, then rebuilding fences as the road-building went through gardens, and then ploughing land to demonstrate to the Crown that it didn't recognise the confiscation of those lands.

The other what-if, that is a major thing for us in Parihaka, what if after the Pāhua if that hadn't taken place, what if the cannon had gone off on that day? What if the Crown had moved forward to remove forcibly everyone? It removed most of the people of Parihaka because most of the people in Parihaka weren't just from Taranaki, they were from iwi from around the country. And so they put Waikato people onto wagons, took them into New Plymouth, and returned them back to Waikato on the steamships that went around the country and told them never to come back into Taranaki and set outposts at Pukearuhe and Waitōtara that stopped any Māori that were coming through to Parihaka, stop them from coming in. So they forcibly removed people from around the country out of Parihaka.

And what if that hadn't happened? Well, it's hard to say whether Parihaka would have achieved a lot in terms of the confiscation because what happened is that the Crown wasn't interested in going back on its confiscation. It was certainly interested in the settlement of Taranaki lands. And it's certainly interested in the settlement of those other iwi where it had made confiscations.

But what it did, is it sent Tohu and Te Whiti off prison. When they came back, we had a major split. And there was a number of other imprisonments. But there was a major split within the community. And from what my perspective and other people have different views about it is that the split that occurred was that Tohu felt that the price around the protest and the actions of the Crown was too high a price to pay for our people within Parihaka. And so didn't want to continue but wanted to find other pathways forward and other options to respond to the Crown's actions.

Whereas Te Whiti supported strongly by others as well, such as Tītokowaru, decided they wanted to keep the acid on the Crown, to keep their feet moving forward, and to continue to protest against what was taking place. And so ended up being returned to prison over and over again and the last group of prisoners coming out of prison in 1898.

What happened is that of this land, 20% was returned to Taranaki Māori, 20% of that land. And so in the block that was Parihaka, the Parihaka block, determined by the land court, 45,000 acres, 23,000 acres was supposed to be returned back to Parihaka. 23,000 acres on the maunga side of the main road, of that road. Not on the coast, which was better farming environment but in the inland area.

And then because Parihaka continued even though it had-- this was in the 1890s, it continued to protest and advocate for the return of those lands. As what was agreed by the Crown, continued to have land removed and to a point that today there's around about 5,000 acres that is still retained by our community.
Much of that land is in leasehold lands. Much of it and a lot of land in Taranaki is under that, was originally perpetual leases and then was converted into a process-- I won't go into it-- but it changed from perpetual leases.

Much of the land is also tied up in land courts with thousands of owners in quite small blocks. So even Parihaka itself and Parihaka X, there are thousands of owners on a block of land in trying to get movement ahead. Sometimes it's very difficult as to what to do about that.

But the main thing is this that the Crown kept 40% of the land and forced through as purchases. So much of the land it allocated to owners but allocated to owners that they knew would sell land. And so 40% was sold and 40% it kept as punishment for Taranaki rebelling against the Crown.
So 20% was returned and that 20% wasn't safe. They continued to be assailed by the land courts, by all sorts of systems that continued to remove that land from their possession.

What I'd like to do is really focus in on those what-ifs. As really I think is what's driving us today. So what we would say is what if Tohu and Te Whiti's legacy had been recognised by the Crown? What if that legacy had been recognised by society, what would that look like? And so for us in Parihaka we have, as I said before, a range of perspectives and views about what that is.

Some are very strongly associated with biblical references and are associated with very strong Christian principles. Others are very much focused in on principles of peace. Some around tikanga and cultural values. And others are very much focused in on the concept of community development or all of the above.
So there's a range of drivers that move our community. But to try and find a way forward, we decided to put aside the vast diversity of those things and to say, what is the legacy of Tohu and Te Whiti? What does that look like?

And so we went through waiata and statements that have been made by Tohu and Te Whiti. And we distilled out these 10 principles. And I'd like to go over them and then talk about maybe how does that look going forward?

So the first one, Maung-ā-rongo, that makes sense, ne? So the idea of non-violence. And this was probably the main principle at the beginning of Parihaka. Anyone who came into Parihaka had to commit to non-violence, to not participate in the war, to give up weapons of war, and to commit to peaceful activities. And so non-violent action was very much a rule. So around non-violent conflict resolution.

Autonomy is the sense that we want to move ahead in terms of how our decision-making processes and make decisions for ourselves. As opposed to-- it's not so much as in terms of separatism but more around the ability to make decisions.
The need to provide sanctuary. In the time of Tohu and Te Whiti, people will come in who are traumatised, who were landless because of the confiscations, or had been moved off for other reasons.

And so today we still see that the violence maybe has changed from muskets, and swords, and those sorts, and cannons, into more. The violence is quite often now is poverty, addictions, mental health, a range of issues assail our community and is a form of violence of today. And our whānau was subjected to that.

Whakaaro-pai is the concept of equality and the idea that when Parihaka began, we had people who were liberated slaves. And the tikanga, they had lost their status because they had been enslaved. But a large number of Taranaki were returned slaves. A large number were warriors, that a large number would-- fought for the Crown.

So they said put aside all of those stigmas that were formerly attached to you and we all work together for this, for our community. We all work in the gardens. We all do. All of the jobs. There isn't anyone that is above the other. So Tohu and Te Whiti worked alongside everyone else in their activities, alongside other rangatira.

The idea of ringa-raupā is the concept that we need to really all work hard at this. And all need to participate.

Motuhake, self-sufficiency, the idea that if you are reliant on people from outside, then you are reliant on their criteria and their norms, who determine what you do forward. So you need to find a way forward to be able to make decisions and it comes through self-sufficiency.

A huge kōrero repeatedly around Manawa-nui. Tohu and Te Whiti, they didn't romanticise the view that in a short while things are going to be rosy. They understood that this process was something that would take a long time. Maybe they didn't envisage it would take 140 years to reach an agreement or 130, 137 years to reach an agreement with the Crown but they certainly knew this: we needed to have resilience and sustain this way forward.

Kotahitanga, we all talk about that. But I think Kotahitanga they spoke about is the idea that each iwi had the right to make their own decisions. They didn't tell people to give up their identity. They encouraged each iwi to make their own marae, have their own narratives, have their own kōrero with their waiata groups, but then come together and reach agreement and reconcile his differences and work as collaboratively and reconcile any differences they come across.

And the last one is Oranga-tonutanga, a large number of our waiata continually talk about Oranga-tonutanga . The way forward is towards the future of Parihaka in the next generations.

I'd like to say in closing that the concept of Parihaka is about-- how do I put this-- the concept of Parihaka isn't about just Parihaka, the papakāinga. What I think we're getting to with our now community is providing models, or answers, or solutions to the difficulties of how we work as communities again. How do we live in papakāinga with the principles that are guided there that will build communities as opposed to divide and turn us into-- and focus in on ownership.
So the idea of what does working together-- what are all these principles look like in communities? How do we resolve things like climate change and COVID then how do we respond to those as communities?

And so we need to find solutions to those and I hope that Parihaka can provide some solutions. But it doesn't mean that we have all of the answers. We simply provide the answers we come up with, and put it out there, and say, do these answers, do these solutions fit your model? Fit your community?
And we encourage you all to work as communities and to find your Parihaka-tanga in this day and age,nd for the future of your tamariki and your mokopuna. Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tātou.

[APPLAUSE]

Tanja Schubert-McArthur:
Ngā mihi nui ki a koe, Ruakere]. Ngā mihi nui ki a koutou. So we have a little break here for people to leave if they have to. Let me just close with karakia.

Unuhia, unuhia
Unuhia ki te uru tapu nui
Kia wātea, kia māmā, te ngākau, te tinana, te wairua i te ara takatā
Koia rā e Rongo, whakairia ake ki runga
Kia tina! TINA! Haumi, hui e! TĀIKI E!

Ruakere Hond: Me he pātai? Tukuā mai te pātai.

Audience member 1: Titiro, titiro
Ki te maunga tītōhea
Runga o Parihaka Waitotoroa
Ngāti Moeahu, Ngāti Haupoto
Ko te tākiritanga i te kahu o Wikitōria
Kaitoa. Kaitoa.
Ko Tohu, ko Te Whiti
Ngā manu e rua
I patu te hoariri ki te rangimārie
Kss aue, kss aue
Ahakoa i te pāhuatanga o Parihaka
Ue. Ue. Ue. Hā

Audience member 1: Tēnā koe, matua!

Ruakere Hond: Tēnā hoa, e tama! Me te mōhio tonū Rerenoa, ana, koia, ko Ngāruahine. When I speak about Ngāruahine, I talk about the generation that is now and the connections that Ngāruahine and Taranaki have together that is, Parihaka. Tēnā koe, e Rere.

Audience member 2: Tō rourou te rourou ka ora e te iwi e
Me tēnei te rourou e karanga o te rā
Te whare tiakina e tū, e tū
Kei a koe e te mana o te hunga nei
Tō maunga, kōrero ki a koe Ruakere te tuitui ana, te paiheretia tō iwi, ki ngāi pito o te motu. Kei te tautoko, kei te tautoko, kei te tautoko i a koe. Hei aha te aha, me tū tonu tātou, me pupuri tonu tātou o tātou tikanga. Mehemea ka neke koe i te motu kei konā mātou e āwhina i a koe, mai rā anō, mai rā anō. Ō mahi hoki, he whāngai atu ngā kōrero pēnei ki te nuinga, kia whānui, e tū, e tū e te rangatira.

Ruakere Hond: Tēnā koe, e kui! The kōrero just heard from our whaea here was around the way in which we walk, we carry our tikanga with us and recognise that each community has its tikanga and is acknowledging the tikanga of Parihaka that has been shared here today.

So tēnā koe, the main thing is this that we stand with our tikanga, we stand for our tikanga. We stand for our principles and ethics that we live by. And we need to recognise those tēnā koe.

Ruakere Hond:
That's a good question. So the question was around if Parihaka is looking to provide models of how communities can work together, is that just Māori communities that is the focus of that development? Or is it more broadly across all communities throughout Aotearoa, potentially the world, ne?

Depends on how relevant it is, obviously. We definitely look at it from a perspective of communities. We think that we hold views and we're having discussions around things like climate change. How long can we go with models where we continue to ship most of the wealth of the country overseas? I'm not saying that we exclude ourselves from overseas. But the whole idea of using fossil fuels to ship all of the goods around the country when in actual fact, we have the ability of communities to provide most of our needs rather than bringing them into this. So the idea of gardening, we're looking to — which was a huge part of what Parihaka's history was. Because gardening is the concept of peace. Rongo-mā-tāne is the atua associated with peaceful activity. Because you cooperate together, you work together, and you share the benefits.

So the idea of producing your own food has elements of self-sufficiency. It has elements of rangatiratanga. And I'm not saying that everyone in the world has to start getting out there, although it sounds lovely.

But even in cities, where you got like some sort of garden and even if you're just producing a little bit, you are actually contributing to utilising it.
Because when you're producing kai, you're hopefully composting all your waste, rather than throwing it all out. You are sharing that kai with others and they are also picking up on this concept of Rongo.

So that's one thing. But renewable energy, we're definitely strongly focused in on, how can we work as a community? How can we create a microgrid with the community rather than just focusing on taking electricity off the main grid? How do we produce either through solar panels or wind turbines to be able to provide electricity to the whole community and manage it, that is, as a collective?

Also things like every house doesn't need to have a washing machine, you know. We need to work towards ideas of having shared laundromats or shared, you know, instead of having dryers, how about a drying room? Or something like that. I don't know. We are still trying to find ways in which we can come together. And the idea that if we have a shared laundromat for the community, one is that it will reduce the amount of power and the expense. And so people can have the economic model fits more to the community.

But also, we come together a lot more and the more we come together, the stronger our relationships within the community will become. Things like, instead of everyone having a car and everyone driving into town to buy their groceries at the supermarket in New Plymouth, you know, half an hour's drive. 50 kilometres there, 50 kilometres back.

The idea of having an electric van that goes once a day, goes and collects, everyone orders online, collects their groceries.

And all I'm saying is that there are numerous problems that communities come across. How do you resolve conflict? How do you deal with drug abuse? How do you deal with mental health issues? How do you deal with whānau who can't afford to live in a certain place? Like either do work on their house because their roof is collapsing or whatever.

Every community deals with it. But to a large extent we expect the government to come and help with those solutions or we do that as individuals. I think what Parihaka is saying is that every community has the ability to act as a community. And the more we act locally, the more we have an impact on lessening the use of resources, lessening impact on climate, lessening impact on the economic pressures that are put on those who are most poor and most disadvantaged within our communities.


Transcript | Part 2

Ruakere Hond: Tino pai! So the question was around the issue of racism and what can Parihaka contribute? Or what is Parihaka doing that can be seen to be aligned with the work that is responding to the racism that we experience within our communities?

I think one of the most important things that are so much like a key that's unlocking Parihaka, is we're building a visitor's Experience Centre. We're building a building with the support of government who have provided some funding there to be able to construct this building as a centre where we can present those principles that we talked about, present that history, and create an environment where we can have those conversations.

For many years, people have spoken about the importance of finding centres where we have peace studies, where we look into peace. Because, I don't know, I don't want to simplify racism because racism is a very complex concept. But a lot of it is driven by ignorance, a lack of awareness. And the idea of providing a centre where people are able to experience Parihaka's, not only Parihaka's history, but Parihaka's aspirations for the future. We would hope to contribute with certainly not the only part of this picture, but we would like to be a part of that response to racism.

And actually, many of the issues that our communities are facing currently, things such as poverty and that I've just spoken about.

But racism in particular, we've suffered quite strongly that within the community of Taranaki. The farming community has largely misunderstood our Māori community has seen the confiscation of land and has acted very antagonistically towards Parihaka in the past. Or simply ignored and made invisible. And people living just down the road from Parihaka, just simply call it the pā where the ’Māoris’ go.

And that's the way it's always been seen. But as the voice, as Māori start to have a voice in that space, quite often it draws out those things that are sometimes hidden in people's kitchens, in living rooms, and become part of national discussion.

So I think the most important thing is, and I think it's good that those statements come out into the open. We put it into the light of day, and sterilise it, and then say, well, this is what is the actual answer. Our truth is our truth. What is your truth? You know, and then say, well, how do we actually find a reconciliation of those two different perspectives?

So the visitors centre, we haven't got a name for it yet because we name it once the building is opened. Hopefully, build over the next two years. We'll be able to carry these sorts of principles, and carry these sorts of narratives, and provide a space to have those discussions on racism and many other things that we're coping with today.

Ruakere Hond: Tēnā koe. It's a really good question. And we have been talking about that for quite a while. It was raised by a number of people. Some people have advocated getting rid of Guy Fawkes' Day and calling it Bryce' Day. [LAUGHTER] I think that defeats the purpose of getting rid of Guy Fawkes' Day. Really, realistically, Guy Fawkes' Day is like Halloween and these other things. How relevant are they in people's lives?

The idea of recognising our local history and our local identity is really the focus of I think any discussion that is associated with the Parihaka Day. We have quite vast differences of opinions about our Parihaka Day. And the biggest concern is that Parihaka becomes iconised-- was that the word? Turned into an icon then it loses its real potential because it becomes simplified to such event, reified in a way that it only means this. Whereas, recognising that it is something that is evolving.

So there are those who make very, very strong arguments that a Parihaka Day is a way in which we can recognise history. Because Parihaka wasn't just about Parihaka. It was also about the soldiers that came in there and the effects it had on them.

And a number of people talk about in their own whakapapa. They have an ancestor who was one of the soldiers who came on to Parihaka. And when we had the reconciliation on the day, there was probably about 50 descendants of people who had their ancestors -- were part of the invading force.

And when Chris Finlayson read out his apology, they all asked if they could stand and show their support. Not so much in terms of apologising for what their ancestors did but, basically, saying this generation is saying that we support these statements that have been made in terms of an apology.

Obviously, the reasons why people participated in the attack on Parihaka were diverse as well. Sometimes they were simply soldiers who were trying to get land to survive. But there were, obviously, other bigger narratives.

So the idea of a Parihaka Day, maybe it's better to be called a Peace Day. And it's associated with the day. Because everyone, every iwi, and every community has narratives of peace. You can't be a community without having a concept, some form of concept, of what peace is. How you engage with each other and recognise each other's mana.

Generally, if you don't have that concept of peace you don't last long as a community, or it's more of a dictatorship, or maybe a prison. But the idea of a day of peace. And on many places around the world, they have days of peace whether that's Martin Luther King Day or whatever.

If we are able to find a way in which it's not all about Parihaka. Because we struggle under the weight of everyone's attention being focused in on Parihaka. And we're only just trying to survive ourselves and find answers to these questions.

I think that the attention needs to be turned on everyone's communities. And everyone asks the question what does peace mean for our whānau? What does peace mean for our neighbourhood?

Do we actually support our kuia just down the road who's struggling to mow lawns, or whatever, or struggling to weed your gardens? I'm not saying it's like a boy scouts sort of thing, you know, a "do a good deed" every day.

I'm really saying is how does the community operate under these principles of peace? And if that can be associated, I personally, and again I'm only one person, would support the idea of the 5th of November getting rid of the fireworks. I don't like fireworks anyway.

I certainly don't like the idea of putting Guy on a - how many times he's been burned at the stake. The idea that we're celebrating the fact that the British government managed to destroy a coup. That's history long gone that doesn't really relate to us in this country. So pai te pātai,is a good question. Does a Parihaka Day have relevance for the country? Well, I'd like to see it as a peace day. And just have it ever on a day like the 5th of November.

And then maybe that becomes a peace week like Māori language week. And it's actually focusing on what we do as communities for that week to build and strengthen our support for each other.

Ruakere Hond: What about a statue? We've got Mahatma Gandhi down there by the train station. That's a lot of debate within our community as well. Because there are some within the community that don't think there is a potential for Tohu and Te Whiti to become almost idolised. And having a statue, they weren't really in support of it in their time. They didn't really even like having their photos taken. And they discouraged building effigies and carvings that then the focus went on those things.

I think the key thing is this that is there a need for a peace monument? Is there a need to recognise the way in which each iwi, each community, each region had activities of peace that also should be given as much status as any statue of Tohu and Te Whiti could ever have? Just recently, I'm not sure how long ago, but Chris Finlayson was talking about it on national radio, just not long ago, about the unveiling of the Statue of James K Baxter's father, Archibald, is it?

[AUDIENCE MEMBER HELPS OUT ]

Archibald Baxter is a conscientious objector in the First World War in a horrendous war. And stood up against huge pressure. I mean, who stands against the country standing as one against the common enemy. And says, I stand instead for peace. That takes real guts and stamina.

So I don't know what a statue of Archibald Baxter does for peace. But if we don't have the conversations about what his background is within, then a statue is wasted.

Ruakere Hond: Kia ora mai. That's the question is this around that I spoke about the Musket Wars and the conflict and that influence potentially influenced Tohu and Te Whiti's views on peace. And also the other influences maybe there were other iwi or other traditional values that influenced their notions of peace.

And then the second question was around the idea of if there is a peace centre, can it be perceived that it would be a place where groups could come, they have conflicts and are able to use it as a site for reconciliations of those difference needs. So like a managed or a facilitated discussion in an environment that could be associated with principles of peace.

We don't have a lot of time to go through the whole thing with the Musket Wars but I would hold the view that there are a number of influences. The first one is this that Te Whiti's father was killed just after he had been born. So he was a newborn baby. His father was killed in one of those attacks. His mother was forced to leave the area where they were and, basically, go on the run. She ended up in Ngāruahine which then became the strong relationship with Ngāruahine.
And Tohu Kakahi is named after Te Whiti's father who was killed. So even though Tohu Kakahi is an uncle of Te Whiti, he's a first cousin of Te Whiti's father. But he was born after Te Whiti. Although some say before Te Whiti. But he was named Hone Kakahi. Tohu Kakahi was Te Whiti's father. And he was given that name. I would assume to partly remember Tohu Kakahi and the fact that he was killed at around the time of his birth.

But I think the point that I'd like to make is that firstly, they escaped from that violence, they escaped from those attacks, they came down here to Wellington. Although that period is a little bit fuzzy around the details.
We know that they became involved with the schools, and they learnt to read and write. They learnt-- going to a school when there's only one book in the library and it's the Bible. You read it from cover to cover. So they knew the Bible. You know, every aspect of it.

And so when Riemenschneider came to Warea, they arrived there as well as young fellows, as leaders-in-waiting. Their focus was cultivation. So the association of Rongo and agricultural activity was super-powerful for them.

They were there to build an economic capacity to be able to stand on their own two feet again. And I'm not talking about them as individuals but them as a community. So Riemenschneider was very much a part of their influence as well, saying, put aside violence. Don't get involved in the war, or the conflict that's take-- well, the war hadn't started by then, but the conflict that was taking place.

So I think all of those things as well as the different groups such as Tāwhiao coming through had a huge influence. Definitely Te Ua Haumeene and his influence when Lord Worsley ran aground and the way in which the role he played. So all of those things had a part to play in their perception of peace.

But I think in terms of-- I don't know what you'd call it-- a reconciliation centre, maybe a place to resolve conflict. I'm a little bit reluctant to dive into that simply because we have to resolve our own conflicts within our own community. We're not a community that is all well at the moment.

When it was asked of our community of all of the things that you'd like to do, there was 36 projects were put on the table. You know, repair the water, fix people's houses, get gardens going again, and there was 36 of them.

And ask people what was the number one priority, the number one priority was respond to historical trauma. Resolve historical trauma that people within Parihaka are traumatised. They've fought for years and years to try and find it. And sometimes when you get rid of, I'll say an enemy, because the Crown has been the focus of enemy, then that has been the problem, has been always the Crown. Well, then now the problem is ourselves. How do we find a way to restore ourselves into a position of power? Because we've always, to a certain extent, had a reason to have the addictions, and the sorts of issues, and the conflicts, and the trauma that we all.

And so I would say, definitely, I'd like to see that as a reconciliation centre. However, I'd like to work on ourselves first to resolve some of those traumas. And to have practices that then become principles of how we've provide that as a service. It sounds like-- it sounds strange to call it a service. But as an opportunity for groups to resolve the conflict.

Kua nui pea mō tēnei wā. We've run out of time. Kua tae ki te haurua i te tahi. Kua oti te karakia, karakia i a Huirangi Waikerepuru. Huirangi had a huge influence over me and many others in Taranaki. And he always spoke about peace. He talked a lot about water. And the importance of water. But water is actually a concept of peace. It's about recognising our environment. And we need to find as they see it in their time: He maunga-ā-rongo ki runga i te whenua, he maunga-ā-rongo ki runga i te tāngata If we find peace in our land and our environment we will provide and forge peace among ourselves. And most of our conflicts are found in the land and our environment. And the sort of quarrels we have about who owns it and who runs it and who has control over it. Tēnā koutou, tēnā tatou.

[APPLAUSE]

Any errors with the transcript, let us know and we will fix them. Email us at digital-services@dia.govt.nz


Back to top