Black and white geometric flower shape.

New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme Interim Delivery Report

A summary of the New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme's (NZLPP) mahi and spending. NZLPP supports librarians, library services and assist community recovery from COVID-19.

March 2022

Introduction

The New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme (NZLPP) was established in Budget 2020 as a time-limited delivery programme in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The programme supports librarians and library services to be retained in New Zealand libraries and assists them to support community recovery. (1) To achieve this outcome, multiple initiatives and projects have been funded — supporting the work of libraries and positioning the sector to be sustainable post-pandemic. (2)

The purpose of this Interim Delivery Report is to summarise 18 months of the programme’s mahi and spending — from establishment to the end of December 2021.

As we are approach the end of the main funding allocation for public library partnerships and fee waivers, Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa National Library of New Zealand is preparing to transition the remaining NZLPP mahi into the hands of the sector; and to our sister programme for schools and young people, Kōkiri Whakamua. From January 2022, the programme focus is on the public library secondment transition and our sector sustainability initiatives, with the view to wind up most of our activity by June 2022.

A final Delivery Report and Programme Evaluation Report will be provided after the programme’s closure. We have contracted Martin Jenkins for the delivery of an impact evaluation to assess the direct impact of the programme and the extent to which the programme’s objectives have been met. The impact evaluation report will contain a mix of quantitative data analysis and qualitative case studies (3), stories and narrative and will be delivered at the end of the programme.

Infographic to celebrate one year of NZLPP. Long description below.
Celebrating 1 year in action infographic.
  • Long description — celebrating one year in action

    Infographic showing a dollar sign crossed out and the words subscription charges for electronic resources waived for public libraries for 2 years.

    A hand holding a dollar sign and the words 11 grants at $5m for sustainable library sector projects.

    An icon of lots of people and the words174 people working in public libraries.

    A wifi symbol and the words free public internet for 50 councils.

Long description — celebrating one year in action

Infographic showing a dollar sign crossed out and the words subscription charges for electronic resources waived for public libraries for 2 years.

A hand holding a dollar sign and the words 11 grants at $5m for sustainable library sector projects.

An icon of lots of people and the words174 people working in public libraries.

A wifi symbol and the words free public internet for 50 councils.


I’ve been reflecting on June 2020, when the COVID recovery fund money came through to NZLPP, thinking what an extraordinary and exciting moment that was. I’ve also been reflecting on the enormous effort, goodwill and collaboration that has gone in to getting us to this point. Right from the outset, we designed the programme with the sector. With people who have given so much of their time and really enabled the programme to be successful. Now we’re at the point where that funding is coming to an end and looking at our options, considering how we can lock in the benefits and positive things that have come from the programme and how we can best position the sector for the future.
— Rachel Esson, National Librarian Te Pouhuaki

About the NZLPP

The New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme (NZLPP) supports librarians and library services to be retained in NZ libraries and assist them to support community recovery.

The Government entrusted the National Library to lead and support this COVID-19 recovery work across New Zealand’s library sector, especially in public libraries, with a funding package of $58.8 million, over 2 to 4 years. A further $1.6m over 4 years is provided to the Public Lending Right for New Zealand Authors (PLR) in recognition of their books being available in New Zealand libraries.

The main programme, delivering over 170 jobs for library workers in public libraries; free internet through all public libraries; and relief for New Zealand libraries by waiving user charges, will formally close at 30 June 2022. There will be some transitional funding continuing for a period after that date. Funding for work to provide specialist library services for schools and young people and the increase to the PLR is ongoing.

National Library’s role

The National Library has a leadership role in the libraries sector in Aotearoa This is expressed through one of its statutory purposes to supplement and further the work of other libraries in New Zealand; and the role of the National Librarian to promote co-operation in library matters and provide assistance in the development of libraries (4). For these reasons, the Government has given the National Library of New Zealand the role to oversee and manage NZLPP funding and programme delivery.

How we got here

In April 2020, New Zealand was in lockdown. COVID-19 as we knew it was spreading quickly around the world and there were no available vaccines or treatments. The Government was nearing the end of its Budget 2020 process. In the face of the pandemic, many proposals for the Government’s Budget 2020 were reprioritised and a new $50bn fund, the COVID-19 Response and Recovery Fund (CRRF), was established to address the impacts of the pandemic. The Government’s strategy was clear. At the time it identified 3 ‘waves’ of action.

The first wave was to respond to and fight the virus, cushioning the blow on the economy and on people’s lives. It covered medical and health responses; public health and safety measures; and wage subsidies to keep people in jobs and to keep businesses afloat, while doors were closed under lockdown and post-lockdown.

The second wave, a central part of Budget 2020 and the CRRF announcement, is positioning the country for recovery. This is the primary focus of the NZLPP funding.

Wave 3 is described as reset and rebuild. It focuses on the post-pandemic environment, looking at what investment might be needed to help get New Zealand back on to a level footing again. The idea of building back better was a common theme — both in New Zealand and overseas.

The Minister of Internal Affairs asked the National Library to work with the Ministry for Culture and Heritage on a response and recovery package for the Arts, Culture and Heritage sector, including libraries. A big concern for Ministers was loss of jobs and the impact on the community of COVID-19.

For libraries, the concern was also the cutting of services alongside long-term loss of jobs and library expertise at the very time a greater demand for services could be expected by those impacted. NZLPP was developed to help address these concerns and work to support and protect libraries in their role in helping communities during the recovery from the pandemic and beyond.

In 2020, during the initial lockdowns, LIANZA reported a surge in online memberships and e-lending at public libraries across the motu (5). This is consistent with international evidence of usage of public libraries increasing during times of recession (6).

Programme principles

Due to the Budget process, it was only after the Budget 2020 announcement that the National Library could fully engage with the library sector to agree the priorities and final scope for an equitable programme of work. Soon after the announcement a series of hui with sector stakeholder groups and a cross-sector online workshop helped us develop the following principles which guided all early decision-making:

  1. Library submissions are consistent with the priority areas of the initiative:
    • Retention and/or creation of job opportunities for librarians
    • Skills enhancement for librarians to support community recovery and strengthen the profession
    • Maintaining current library service levels to the public during the time of community recovery
    • Skills enhancement in the community to support community recovery.
  2. Focus on Mātauranga Māori
  3. Support communities that are most in need
  4. Leverage existing partnerships and initiatives
  5. Support for sector sustainability.

Programme outcomes

As part of our programme establishment, we commissioned the creation of a monitoring and evaluation framework shown below. This is being updated in 2022 to support the final programme evaluation and reporting.

Programme outcome diagram. Long description below.
Programme outcome diagram.
  • Long description — Programme outcomes diagram

    A diagram showing key parts of the NZLPP programe and outcomes.

    The acitivity streams are identified as:

    • secondee Librarians
    • APNK
    • fee Waivers
    • Services to Schools
    • future planning

    The are enabled by partnerships, collaboration and capability building.
    Partnerships include:

    • other Libraries
    • Hapū, iwi and other minority ethnic communities
    • community organisations
    • schools and Kura
    • ministries
    • NGOs

    Collaboration includes:

    • shared cataloguing
    • licencing arrangements
    • shared services

    Capability building is identified as:

    • training
    • mentoring and upskilling of secondee librarians

    Three levels of outcome are identified.

    The short-term outcomes (1 to 2 years) are:

    • key stakeholders value libraries
    • enhanced engagement and reach with key communities
    • improved skills of librarians and community
    • broader range of services that meet community needs
    • increased community access to digital services and support
    • increased diversity of partnerships

    The medium-term outcomes (3 to 5 years) are:

    • improved partnering with other libraries and organisations
    • retaining and strengthening librarian skills and services
    • improved rates of library usage of people and groups
    • wider variety of pathways into library work

    The long-term outcomes (6 to 10 years) are:

    • improved sustainability of public libraries
    • improved diversity in public libraries
    • improved public library capability

Long description — Programme outcomes diagram

A diagram showing key parts of the NZLPP programe and outcomes.

The acitivity streams are identified as:

  • secondee Librarians
  • APNK
  • fee Waivers
  • Services to Schools
  • future planning

The are enabled by partnerships, collaboration and capability building.
Partnerships include:

  • other Libraries
  • Hapū, iwi and other minority ethnic communities
  • community organisations
  • schools and Kura
  • ministries
  • NGOs

Collaboration includes:

  • shared cataloguing
  • licencing arrangements
  • shared services

Capability building is identified as:

  • training
  • mentoring and upskilling of secondee librarians

Three levels of outcome are identified.

The short-term outcomes (1 to 2 years) are:

  • key stakeholders value libraries
  • enhanced engagement and reach with key communities
  • improved skills of librarians and community
  • broader range of services that meet community needs
  • increased community access to digital services and support
  • increased diversity of partnerships

The medium-term outcomes (3 to 5 years) are:

  • improved partnering with other libraries and organisations
  • retaining and strengthening librarian skills and services
  • improved rates of library usage of people and groups
  • wider variety of pathways into library work

The long-term outcomes (6 to 10 years) are:

  • improved sustainability of public libraries
  • improved diversity in public libraries
  • improved public library capability

Focus areas

We used the programme principles to develop six focus area options for public library staff supported by the programme. As part of an Expression of Interest process, when signing up to the programme each public library selected one or more of the following focus areas for their community:

  1. Digital inclusion, supporting and assisting job seekers and learners — including digital literacy for seniors, children and young people.
  2. Library workforce development, supporting an increasingly diverse workforce — including retention and development of Māori and Pasifika staff, leadership development, trainee recruitment and career progression development.
  3. Community engagement, supporting community recovery — including capability building, co-design skills, programming and outreach and by targeting non-users.
  4. Reading for pleasure, supporting wellbeing — including local programme, partnerships and support for young people, whānau and communities.
  5. Te reo and mātauranga Māori, supporting local iwi — including skills development
  6. Content creation and curation of online NZ resources, with a focus on local resources.

The programme developed and rolled out training, coaching and facilitation of Communities of Practice related to each focus area in order to make the greatest possible impact in communities.

Governance

The programme is supported by a Board and a Sector Reference Group (formerly the Steering Group).

The purpose of the Programme Board is to ensure the successful delivery of the programme. In particular, the Board provides oversight and decision-making to ensure the objectives of the programme are achieved and long- term outcomes are on track.

The purpose of the Sector Reference Group is to champion the programme and provide advice, guidance and support during the programme's lifecycle, to ensure it remains on track to achieve its objectives and steer towards long-term outcomes.

Sector Reference Group membership includes representatives from Taituarā; The Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa (LIANZA); Te Rōpū Whakahau; Public Libraries New Zealand (PLNZ); Local Government New Zealand Te Kahui Kaunihera ō Aotearoa (LGNZ); The Council of University Librarians (CONZUL); and The School Library Association of New Zealand (SLANZA).

Other than support from the programme team, the only costs incurred for our volunteer governance group members have been for two in-person hui held in December 2020 and August 2021.

Group photo of 11 people.
Members of the NZLPP Sector Reference Group and Programme Board, August 2021. L to R: Anne Scott, CONZUL; Carla Jeffrey, Te Rōpū Whakahau; Elizabeth Jones, National Library; Anahera Morehu, LIANZA; Rachel Esson National Librarian; Mike Reid, LGNZ; Lewis Brown, NZLPP; Glenys Bichan, SLANZA; Erica Rankin, LIANZA; Dyane Hosler, PLNZ; Vanisa Dhiru, InternetNZ.

Programme advisory

Programme advisory groups were set up during the establishment phase to provide advice and guidance to the programme team as the secondment project was implemented. This included training, coaching and facilitation of Communities of Practice for each area of focus. During this phase, there were 2 advisory groups:

  1. The Training Advisory Group was a small group of representatives from partners, public libraries and ITO's available to the Programme Director and team. They used their expertise across training, skills enhancement and the public library sector to support and guide initiatives.
  2. The Programme Advisory Group brought together people with technical skills to discuss and deal with operational issues for the programme and individual workstreams. They provided advice and guidance as subject matter experts to support programme delivery.

The training and programme advisory groups were volunteers who generously provided their library sector expertise, advice and guidance to the programme at no cost.

The programme also has a Working Group (which continues at time of writing) made up of internal National Library staff and programme team members. It meets weekly to discuss programme progress and seek feedback and input from relevant National Library subject matter experts.

NZLPP infographic from DOT loves data.

Infographic of New Zealand Libraries Partnership programme work. Detail in long description.
  • Long description

    New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme supporting community response and recovery from COVID-19 as of Oct 2021

    Regional feedback

    Te Reo & Matauranga Maori — "Our Maori resource statistics are already showing an increase: the usage of childrens' te reo books has increased by 85%"
    Waikato Region

    Fines Free — "Removing fines, especially from children's books, means whanau are coming back into the library without feeling embarrassed or stressed.'
    Canterbury Region

    Te reo & Matauranga Maori — "We've seen an increase in involvement by Maori. For example, participation in weaving classes as part of teens school holiday programme and with Matariki celebrations."
    Northland Region

    Digital Inclusion — "We currently have 100- 200 people attending our Digital hub a month. We help people with a wide range of activities, including making online applications, accessing emails, teaching them to print from their own devices and supporting them when they don't know how to use a computer."
    Hawkes Bay Region

    Community Engagement — "We've had 75 engagements with community groups, reaching senior citizens, immigrants, and people with disabilities."
    Wellington Region

    Digital Inclusion — "This funding allows our library to build a sustainable platform for the development and delivery of digital services and programmes to support community wellbeing. In real terms this will enable us to move from a paper based 1990's service model to a 2020's one that puts people at the centre of our services and uses technology to support the many facets of digital inclusion"
    Otago Region

    Access to free public internet

    $58.8 million provided through CRRF for librarians and library services to be retained in New Zealalnd Libraryes to support community recovery. $25.32 million, 43% of invested funding has been spent to date.

    CRRF funding has enabled every local council to provide free public internet access and devices through their public libraries.

    Free access to library resources

    As a result of CRRF funding:

    • every public library is providing free dibitial access to a wide range of e-resources to their local communities
    • every public library has free access to cataloguing and inter-lbirary loan tools
    • e-resources available through public libraries have increased by over 25%
    • over 50,000 library items have been loaned between NZ libraries using the inter-loan system.

    Learning management system

    • 181 individuals enrolled in a managed learning programme
    • 205 paid courses secondees have completed
    • 230 paid courses secondees currently enrolled in
    • 243 free courses secondees have completed

    Strategic Partnership Grants

    • $1.5 million provided for study grants to support a qualification 'uplift' for the library sector
    • $0.2 million provided for marae-based mātauranga Māori professional development.

    Retaining and upskilling librarians

    186 librarians employed

    • Ethnicity — 65% New Zealander/Pākeha, 21% Māori, 5% Pasifika, 3% Asian,
    • Age — under 25 14.4%, 25-34 30.4%, 35-44 24%, 45-54 20%, 55-65 8.8%, 65+ 2.4%
    • Gender — Female 86.3%, Male 13.6%

    Funded community programmes

    Percentage of activities by focus area.

    • community engagement 33.7%
    • te re and mātauranga Māori 8.6%
    • Content creation 13.5%
    • reading for pleasusre 11.5%
    • digital inclusion 32.7%

Long description

New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme supporting community response and recovery from COVID-19 as of Oct 2021

Regional feedback

Te Reo & Matauranga Maori — "Our Maori resource statistics are already showing an increase: the usage of childrens' te reo books has increased by 85%"
Waikato Region

Fines Free — "Removing fines, especially from children's books, means whanau are coming back into the library without feeling embarrassed or stressed.'
Canterbury Region

Te reo & Matauranga Maori — "We've seen an increase in involvement by Maori. For example, participation in weaving classes as part of teens school holiday programme and with Matariki celebrations."
Northland Region

Digital Inclusion — "We currently have 100- 200 people attending our Digital hub a month. We help people with a wide range of activities, including making online applications, accessing emails, teaching them to print from their own devices and supporting them when they don't know how to use a computer."
Hawkes Bay Region

Community Engagement — "We've had 75 engagements with community groups, reaching senior citizens, immigrants, and people with disabilities."
Wellington Region

Digital Inclusion — "This funding allows our library to build a sustainable platform for the development and delivery of digital services and programmes to support community wellbeing. In real terms this will enable us to move from a paper based 1990's service model to a 2020's one that puts people at the centre of our services and uses technology to support the many facets of digital inclusion"
Otago Region

Access to free public internet

$58.8 million provided through CRRF for librarians and library services to be retained in New Zealalnd Libraryes to support community recovery. $25.32 million, 43% of invested funding has been spent to date.

CRRF funding has enabled every local council to provide free public internet access and devices through their public libraries.

Free access to library resources

As a result of CRRF funding:

  • every public library is providing free dibitial access to a wide range of e-resources to their local communities
  • every public library has free access to cataloguing and inter-lbirary loan tools
  • e-resources available through public libraries have increased by over 25%
  • over 50,000 library items have been loaned between NZ libraries using the inter-loan system.

Learning management system

  • 181 individuals enrolled in a managed learning programme
  • 205 paid courses secondees have completed
  • 230 paid courses secondees currently enrolled in
  • 243 free courses secondees have completed

Strategic Partnership Grants

  • $1.5 million provided for study grants to support a qualification 'uplift' for the library sector
  • $0.2 million provided for marae-based mātauranga Māori professional development.

Retaining and upskilling librarians

186 librarians employed

  • Ethnicity — 65% New Zealander/Pākeha, 21% Māori, 5% Pasifika, 3% Asian,
  • Age — under 25 14.4%, 25-34 30.4%, 35-44 24%, 45-54 20%, 55-65 8.8%, 65+ 2.4%
  • Gender — Female 86.3%, Male 13.6%

Funded community programmes

Percentage of activities by focus area.

  • community engagement 33.7%
  • te re and mātauranga Māori 8.6%
  • Content creation 13.5%
  • reading for pleasusre 11.5%
  • digital inclusion 32.7%

What has been funded?

The Budget 2020 CRRF summary decisions describe the initiative as follows:

This initiative supports librarians and library services to be retained in New Zealand libraries to support community recovery. This will be done through upskilling and providing specialist librarians; bolstering reading and digital literacy and learning activity; providing free public internet through all public libraries; providing relief for New Zealand libraries by waiving user charges and procurement costs for collaborative library services; and increasing Public Lending Right payments for authors. (7)

The table below summarises the COVID Response and Recovery Funding (CRRF) received and used to deliver the programme. Figures are accurate as at 31 December 2021.

New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme FY21Actuals ($m) FY22Budget ($m) FY23Budget ($m) FY24Budget ($m) TOTAL ($m) Beehive release ($m)
Public library partnerships 9.184 19.348 1.600 - 30.133 30.000
Strategic partnerships sector grants 5.024 - - - 5.024
APNK Extension 0.198 0.515 1.600 - 2.313 4.000
Services to Schools uplift 1.167 3.459 3.561 3.736 11.923 13.300
National Library Fee and Procurement Relief 11.500
EPIC Fee Relief 2.822 2.915 - - _ 5.736 _
Te Puna Fee Relief 0.808 0.894 - - _ 1.702 _
APNK Fee Relief 0.575 0.563 - - _ 1.138 _
Kōtui Procurement Relief 0.250 - - _ 0.250 _
Digitisation and Internet Fee Relief 0.179 0.326 - - _ 0.505 _
Public Lending Right 0.400 0.400 0.400 0.400 1.600 1.600
NZ Libraries Partnership Programme total 20.608 28.420 7.161 4.136 60.325 60.400
Underspend returned to Centre 0.028 - - - 0.028
Budget 2020 — CRRF Initiatives 24.813 27.443 3.961 4.136 60.353

Approximately half of NZLPP funding has been allocated to support public library partnerships to fund and upskill librarians in public libraries. This enables greater support for library users and helps bolster reading and digital literacy. NZLPP's programme team support, primarily focused on these partnerships, forms part of this allocation.

The dual outcome to support librarians, as well as local communities and jobseekers, meant a partnership model was chosen in preference to a contestable grants model. The partnership model, applied through letters of agreement, meant that accountability for delivery was shared between the National Library and public libraries.

NZLPP provided full salary and project funding; training; communities of practice; and coaching. Libraries took on the management and delivery of secondees working on one or more of the NZLPP focus areas in their communities. The programme was also able to provide relief for cost pressures associated with lock downs and heightened COVID-19 settings. This reduced the burden on local councils, while allowing greater flexibility for the programme to quickly respond to changing needs. To date, this has worked exceptionally well and has been evidenced by the findings of the programme's audits.

Beyond public libraries, the programme included fee waivers for New Zealand libraries and specialist library services for schools and young people, reflecting the impact of the pandemic on other library services including in education. National Library has been funded for the loss of income from fee waivers to the library sector, with this amount being fiscally neutral.

Due to fee waivers, every public library is providing free digital access to a wide range of e-resources to their local communities with e-resources available through public libraries increasing by over 25% (and e-resource borrowing increasing by 49% year on year to 13.9 million).

Through NZLPP funding, every local council has been enabled to provide free internet access and devices through their public libraries (with APNK libraries having 11,000 users daily). This includes five new library locations joining the service in the last 2 years.

In addition, Strategic Partnership Grants worth just over $5.0 million have been provided to the sector, including $1.5 million for study grants to support a qualification uplift for library staff and $0.2 million for marae-based mātauranga Māori professional development.

All NZLPP funding is ringfenced for support of the COVID-19 response and recovery, with Cabinet requiring any underspends to be returned to the centre.

Programme delivery staff

To establish and run a programme of this size, with the need for specialist expertise in some areas and working to significant time constraints, we have taken a multi-pronged approach. The team engaged to deliver the programme comprises a combination of fixed term or seconded staff, contractors and provider partners. Where possible, we have drawn on the library sector to provide coaches and subject matter expertise.

In addition to a core team of 10.5 FTE who work with APNK staff (2 FTE) and the additional capability roles within Services to Schools/ Kōkiri Whakamua (12 FTE),for some specialist areas, NZLPP has procured external consultants and providers:

  • Synapsys has provided training support, including the implementation of a Learning Management system.
  • Inspire Group has provided coaching and facilitation support for our secondees and Communities of Practice along with the development of the sector Workforce Capability Framework as part of the sustainability mahi.
  • Allen + Clarke has provided both the Data, Research and Evidence Strategy and the Strategic Review of Services to Libraries, where they are working alongside SageBush who are providing support with cost modelling of the Services to Libraries and developing a Sustainable Delivery Model.

Our Assurance and Audit partner is KPMG who provide Independent Quality Assessments (IQA) and Audit reporting to the programme.

The programme has supplied part-time coaches (40) and facilitators (4) to support secondees. These roles contribute to delivering employment; education and training programmes; and services to support people into employment.

All NZLPP expenditure on consultants and contractors is publicly reported to Parliament as part of the annual financial review.

Secondees

A key part of the programme is upskilling library workers, so that they can provide greater support for library users coping with the disruption and change inherent in the impacts of the pandemic.

Six focus area options (as outlined above) for library staff supported by the programme were identified through early stakeholder engagement. When signing up to the programme each library selected one or more focus areas for their community. The programme has implemented support and training needed for each focus area to make the greatest possible difference for the community.

At 31 December 2021, 193 people were hired and actively working in public libraries across the motu as a direct result of the programme funding. We highlight their work on our webpage (8).

Examples include digital literacy classes to help people gain confidence and independence using the internet. Buller District Libraries’ digital literacy classes for seniors were so popular that more needed to be scheduled. Community engagement librarian Nicky Meadowcroft says the council’s library team started running Better Digital Futures for Seniors Pathways in May 2021. “There has been a huge uptake. We are rapt to be able to help our senior community members with their digital literacy.”

The Waimate District Library welcomed two fixed-term specialist librarians to their team, with the Libraries Partnership funding. The roles help serve a changing demand for library services, including a specific emphasis on community outreach. Commenting on the initiative, Waimate District Library senior librarian Tony Morton said the library landscape is continually evolving, pointing out now is the ideal time to adapt to the changes.

“The mediums librarians are using have changed and it’s important now to better understand the need to cater for all varying levels of use...and that’s where these two specialist roles come in to play,” Morton said.

Secondees’ learning and support tools

A senior Capability Consultant developed a capability and skills framework (see Appendix 1) to support the secondees and form the basis for the provision of training.

Secondee learning and support tools include a Learning Management System and community of practice platform.

Learning Management System

The Learning Management System (LMS) site was developed and hosted by Synapsys, to NZLPP specifications, using the New Zealand open source Totara Learning management platform.

This service runs to 30 June 2022. It was funded as part of the $30m over 2 years to fund and upskill librarians in public libraries and access is offered only to secondees and PLNZ members. The full cost of establishing and implementing the LMS was $0.511m.

Synapsys developed the LMS in consultation with both the Training Advisory Group and Programme Advisory Group, which included Library Managers. A full competency framework was designed as the backbone to the LMS covering our six focus areas (Workforce Development, Te Reo & Mātauranga Māori, Reading for Pleasure, Digital Literacy, Content Creation and Community Engagement). Training available within the sector and aligned to these areas was then identified and uploaded to the platform.

Data is updated fortnightly and reported to the Programme Board via a monthly snapshot report. It includes information about courses offered, registrations and completion rates. The uptake over the first four months to 30 September 2021 shows:

  • 175 librarians and 81 managers engaged, 183 enrolled in learning;
  • 1887 courses added to learning plans; and
  • 194 courses completed.

As of 31 Dec 2021, 2526 courses had been added to learning plans, with 547 courses indicated as complete. The greatest single uptake of training offered to secondees related to community engagement. This is consistent with the programme objectives to upskill and enhancing the capability of librarians to support their community through the recovery from COVID-19, recognising that some of the calls on library staff from their communities may not be in traditional areas of librarianship.

Completion of cost-free courses relies on the user marking the course as complete. Completion of cost-associated courses are indicated by the course provider.

While the upskilling and training element of the secondee programme is not mandatory and there is limited time for training in a busy library role, professional development is a core element of the funding allocated by the Government. It is positive to see a significant uptake that is growing each month.

For more experienced secondee library workers there are opportunities to play a role in supporting and upskilling others via the Communities of Practice and Slack channel.

Community of Practice platform

We have also set up a well-used Community of Practice platform, on a dedicated Slack channel, for each focus area: digital inclusion, reading for pleasure, community engagement, workforce development, te reo and mātauranga Māori, and content creation. We have 192 members, with half of these active online on any given week.

Slack is a business communication platform that uses features such as chat rooms or ‘channels’ that can be organised by topic, groups and direct messages. It has been adopted as a community platform, replacing message boards or social media groups.

The NZLPP Slack channel was funded as part of the $30m over 2 years to fund and upskill librarians in public libraries. The cost of establishing and implementing the Slack channel was $0.037m.

Data on usage is updated and reported monthly to the programme and on demand as required with approximately 296 members signed up as at 31 December 2021. This includes 252 active members (an average of 90 active members per week).

Month-by-month usage data/analytics can be easily drawn from the system directly. These analytics tell us that an average of 50 messages are sent per day, a total 420 files have been uploaded to share with other users (average four per day), and there is an average of 40 active daily users.

Photo of a group of people who are smiling and putting their hands in the air.
Secondees and facilitators at the NZLPP Community Engagement hui, 2021.

Fee waivers

NZLPP has provided relief for New Zealand libraries by the waiver of National Library user charges and procurement costs for collaborative library services. These charges were waived for all non-government libraries for 2 years. Libraries taking part in our digitisation partnership programmes also received support with 50% of digitisation fees being covered by NZLPP funding.

Waivers for EPIC, Te Puna and APNK libraries removes uncertainty of costs and budget for individual libraries and their members. Libraries can use funding released by the waiver to increase the collaborative services they receive in the period (e.g. more e-resources or wi-fi access points), or to help minimise other library service reductions. Kōtui libraries' unbudgeted costs to support their next phase of procurement were also funded to remove that as a cost pressure.

Most libraries are EPIC and Te Puna subscribers and all public libraries were offered an APNK membership. Kōtui is used exclusively by 43 councils' libraries.

Via NZLPP funding, the National Library has also been able to use existing EPIC supplier relationships to extend digital resources to a wider group of libraries than was previously possible. This includes making it possible for all New Zealand public libraries to provide their users with access to EBSCO online resources (9) and the digital newspaper platform PressReader. NZLPP funding also enabled the introduction of Niche Academy, an online tool able to be used by librarians for creating online training experiences for library users.

Libraries are benefiting from fee waivers for the services outlined below:

EPIC

EPIC (Electronic Purchasing in Collaboration) is the national electronic licensing initiative that makes quality electronic resources available to New Zealanders through libraries who are consortium members.Through the EPIC consortium, NZ libraries can get online access to thousands of high-quality journals, magazines, books, audio-visual items, images, and other online content for less money by working together. EPIC subscription fees are being waived for the period 1 July 2020 to 30 June 2022, with the exception of some State sector organisations which have most of their budgets funded by Government Vote.

Te Puna

Te Puna Services (10) is a collection of online tools and services created with the help of NZ librarians to support daily tasks of searching, cataloguing, sharing resources, and managing collections. Te Puna Services are only available to member libraries. Te Puna member subscription fees are being waived for the period 1 July 2020 to 30 June 2022, with the exception of some State sector organisations which have most of their budgets funded by Government Vote.

Kōtui

Kōtui is a consortium of New Zealand public libraries, offering a modern shared library management and resource discovery service.Kōtui is an affordable, efficient option to help libraries manage their collections, with leading-edge functionality for library users that would otherwise be unaffordable for many councils.

Through NZLPP, the Kōtui consortium received one-off relief of $0.25m in 2020 for unbudgeted procurement costs relating to the supplier contract.

APNK extension and free public internet

Aotearoa Peoples’ Network Kaharoa (APNK) has been operating since 2008. It provides free public internet and managed devices for public use in libraries and is a partially subsidised service with local authorities contributing one third of the direct financial costs. At the start of NZLPP, 17 local authorities were not current APNK members and membership was capped due to the limit on the government portion of the subsidy.

COVID-19 has helped underline the importance of public access to the internet for information and services without cost being a barrier. The NZLPP offer of a subsidised APNK public internet service to all public libraries was designed to enable all members of the public to get free internet access and use of devices through their public library. This assists the public with digital transactions with government, financial institutions and online job applications.

The programme has worked to achieve this through:

  • waiving of subscription fees for Councils that use the Aotearoa People's Network Kaharoa (APNK) service;
  • working with Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch libraries to support their existing free internet offers; and
  • providing all remaining Councils with the opportunity to join the APNK service at no charge and offering to support free public internet and device provision in those libraries — for a period of 2 years.

Four councils (including the Chatham Islands) are in the process of joining APNK and another five have been provided with assistance to keep their public library internet free of charge.

Funds have been set aside for all libraries that have signed APNK agreements to complete their move to the APNK network by the end of June 2022. We also have provisionally earmarked funding in the 2022/23 financial year for libraries that are unable to join by the end of June 2022 if there have been delays, for example, due to COVID-19.

Strategic Partnership Grants

The NZLPP Strategic Partnership Grants were announced by the Minister of Internal Affairs, Hon Jan Tinetti, in mid-2021. They were a way to broaden the library sector's involvement in helping support librarians and library services to be retained in New Zealand libraries to support community recovery.

Our early engagement and planning with the sector highlighted workforce, funding, and service challenges, already faced by the sector, being made worse by the pandemic.

Concern from library sector partners about the impact of COVID-19 on the sustainability of the wider sector led the programme to support the upskilling, recovery and rebuilding of the sector through strategic partnership grants. These grants are intended to support collaborative and strategic initiatives and to have sustainable impact across the library sector.

The amount available for payment of Strategic Partnership Grants reflects both budgeted grant spending and unallocated funding within the first year due to delays in recruitment and procurement. These delays within local councils and interruptions to supply chains were due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Despite the unallocated funding, all public library requests for secondment and operational funding were able to be funded where they met NZLPP funding criteria. By reprioritising programme funding, less than 0.2% of the first-year funding was returned as underspend.

Eleven Strategic Partnership Grants have been awarded, totalling $5.024m. Sector organisations were encouraged to partner with others and seven of the successful projects are collaborations. Grant proposals were assessed with assistance from the Library and Information Advisory Commission (LIAC) and decisions were informed by their recommendations.

To be considered, Strategic Partnership Grants needed to demonstrate alignment to programme goals which are directly related to these funding intentions.

Feedback from the library sector was strongly supportive of offering these grants.

The grant criteria were:

a) Alignment to the NZLPP objective to support librarians and library services to be retained in New Zealand libraries to support community recovery from COVID-19.

b) Is consistent with the priorities of the programme, specifically one or more of the following:

  • Retention and/or creation of job opportunities for librarians
  • Skills enhancement for librarians to support community recovery and strengthen the profession
  • Maintenance of library services to the public during the time of community recovery
  • Skills enhancement in the community to support communities most in need
  • Focus on Mātauranga Māori
  • Leveraging existing partnerships and initiatives
  • Specialist library services and services to address inequities in provision of books and library services for young people with the greatest need.

c) Assists access to library collections, heritage information and/or other information provided through or by libraries

d) Demonstrates sector collaboration. Noting that a proposal can cover more than one initiative and may include partnering with other organisations for effective delivery.

e) Supports long term sector sustainability

f) Is not a capital initiative.

The project details for the strategic grants are as follows:

Organisation Programme Grant
Te Rōpū Whakahau Mātauranga Māori Professional Development project $200,000
--- --- ---
Te Rōpū Whakahau Te Takarangi ki te Ao, expanding knowledge and appreciation for Māori scholarship, mātauranga and academic excellence $500,000
LIANZA New Zealand Book Awards for Children and Young Adults — Books Alive events $76,000
SLANZA Communities of Learning/ Kahui Ako and School Libraries Collaboration Pilot Programme $48,000
SLANZA School Librarians Collaboration with Many Answers Pilot Programme $200,000
SLANZA A Bit Sus, a misinformation education involving school libraries $150,000
LGNZ Employing a full time 'Libraries Adviser' for 2 years $450,000
PLNZ and Taituarā Public Libraries Co‐Cre8 — a coordinated approach to national data collection $550,000
LIANZA and SLANZA Strengthening the Library and Information Workforce: Tertiary Grants $1,500,000
Te Puna Foundation Communities of Readers (CoR) Phase 2: Strengthening reading engagement through library and community partnerships $850,000
Auckland Libraries, CONZUL and University of Canterbury He Kupenga Horopounamu — a programme of work to change libraries' practice and service design to achieve better outcomes for Māori Communities $500,000

Project partners include: Te Takarangi, New Zealand Book Awards Trust, Tohatoha, National Library’s Services to Schools and the University of Canterbury.

A Senior Advisor will remain in place for a period after the programme closure to support grant delivery. The National Library is currently assessing what other support to grant recipients may be needed after the programme finishes.

Group standing in front of a screen with words New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme Strategic Grants Recipients.
At the announcement of the NZLPP Strategic Grants Recipients. L to R: Lewis Brown, NZLPP; Hoani Lambert, DCE DIA; Kate de Goldi, Te Puna Foundation; Ana Pickering, LIANZA; Hon Jan Tinetti, Minister of Internal Affairs; Mike Reid, LGNZ; Hilary Beaton, PLNZ; Karen Thomas, Taituarā; Celia Joe-Olsen, Te Rōpū Whakahau; Vanisa Dhiru, InternetNZ.

Kōkiri Whakamua

The provision of specialist library services for schools and young people through an uplift of National Library's Services to Schools (now established in NZLPP's sister programme Kōkiri Whakamua) was included in scope of NZLPP for the first year as the programme was established with joint governance and resourcing. NZLPP funding included $13.3m over four years for this mahi (2020–2024).

In the first year of NZLPP, some of this funding was allocated to support SLANZA’s participation in Communities of Learning/ Kahui Ako and school librarians’ collaboration with an AnyQuestions/Many Answers Pilot Programme. Also funded was a misinformation education programme delivered through school libraries, and the LIANZA/SLANZA partnership relating to tertiary grants.

Due to the complexities of the environment for schools during the pandemic and the significant differences in the focus of the mahi, Kōkiri Whakamua was decoupled from NZLPP when the programme was re-baselined in June 2021. The programmes retain multiple strategic connections and areas of common interest between them.

The Kōkiri Whakamua Programme aims to improve, develop and strengthen the National Library’s Services to Schools capability to provide school communities and young people with greatest need with equitable access to library services, resources and support.

The programme funding will allow for improvements across the sector with a focus on equity. Within the context of recovery and post-pandemic rebuilding, this includes additional support for a suite of national reading initiatives, including Communities of Readers, aimed at engaging children and young people with reading for pleasure and wellbeing.

Invitation to whānau night with details of where and when.
Poster promoting a Community of Readers event.

Public Lending Right

The Public Lending Right for New Zealand Authors (PLR) scheme was formalised in legislation in 2008 to provide for New Zealand authors, illustrators, and editors to receive payments in recognition of the fact that their books are available for use in New Zealand libraries.

The PLR fund (11) is divided annually among registered authors, based on how many copies of their works are held by libraries.

The Budget 2020 announcement for NZLPP included a 20% increase to the previous $2m PLR fund, bringing it to $2.4m annually. This amounts to $1.6m extra paid to authors across the four-year COVID-19 response and recovery fund period (between 2020 and 2023) compared to the previous funding. The 20% increase matches the rate of General CPI movement between December 2008 and the date of the announcement.

Future sustainability focus

Early stakeholder engagement through the core programme highlighted concerns about the time-limited nature of support for the sector. For stakeholders, supporting recovery from the pandemic also meant having a forward view to the post-pandemic and post-CRRF funding environment; and not leaving libraries and library services worse off after the programme and additional financial support ends.

In response, NZLPP ran an Investment Logic Mapping (ILM) process to identify problems that threaten the long-term health of the sector. The ILM process also provided a high-level view of potential responses to address the problems and achieve the benefits identified.

The ILM process identified 3 key problems that threaten the long-term health of the sector:

  1. insufficient data and evidence about the value of libraries services makes it difficult to make evidence-based decisions and the case for funding;
  2. inadequate capability within the libraries sector leading to variability in the range and quality of services offered by libraries; and
  3. libraries are funded at the discretion of decision-makers, which means that in times of financial constraint or competing priorities, libraries are vulnerable to funding cuts.

The benefits that would arise from addressing these challenges include better evidence-based decision-making; more qualified and trained librarians; library services that better meet diverse community needs; and greater equity of access to library services.

While fully addressing the challenges is beyond the resources and lifespan of the programme, NZLPP has worked with the sector to prioritise 3 areas that take steps towards the desired outcomes. We are working with sector stakeholders to:

  • develop a sector data, research and evidence strategy — to lay the foundations for a strong data culture and data, research and evidence base on the social and economic value library services deliver;
  • develop a workforce capability framework — building the infrastructure to support broadening and strengthening libraries workforce capability; and
  • review services to libraries — to identify operational efficiencies and inform future sustainability options for National Library services to the sector

Strategic Partnership Grants are also building capability in areas that reinforce the sustainability workstream objectives. NZLPP is working closely with grant recipients to ensure they have access to the resources and support they need to deliver project benefits for the sector and the communities they serve.

Sustainability mahi

Three sustainability projects have been established within NZLPP to support the longer-term future of libraries in meeting the needs of people, communities, iwi and Aotearoa. This is to ensure the NZLPP programme objectives support the conditions needed for the sustainability of library services, so they can continue to support community wellbeing.

Sector representatives and experts are engaged closely in each of these projects, which will conclude by June 2022. Each will deliver strategies or frameworks that will require sector ownership and implementation. We will continue to work with sector organisations to plan for this in the remaining months of the programme.

Data, research and evidence — demonstrating the value of the libraries sector

The overarching objective of the NZLPP reset in mid-2021 was to prioritise our remaining unallocated resources to assist libraries and library services. We needed this support to work through and beyond the pandemic recovery; to be sustainable and enduring; be meeting community needs; and be supported by decision-makers.

To support this, the programme is helping lay the foundations for a strong data culture; and data, research and evidence base. We want these to collectively demonstrate the positive impact library services have in their communities, including those enabled by the NZLPP.

A sector Data, Research and Evidence strategy is being developed with and for the sector. The strategy draws on the expertise and knowledge of representatives from different types of libraries to ensure it will be relevant, useful and actionable by the people who need it.

NZLPP has collected data from libraries reporting on progress towards their stated programme objectives. We are working on ways to make this data openly available to anyone who is doing research on the library sector. It has potential to demonstrate:

  1. different approaches libraries have taken to delivering enhanced services when resourcing allowed;
  2. the demand for IT literacy amongst certain sectors of society and how libraries supported that; and
  3. support for the changing faces of public libraries (increasing focus on people and community support).

NZLPP is also supporting Public Libraries of New Zealand and Taituarā to deliver a more coordinated approach to public library data collection and presentation to council decision makers. The partnership will bring together the data intelligence of the Taituarā Community Well-being Data Service, used in almost 50 councils, with PLNZ's LibPAS data from more than 300 libraries nationally. Drawing these resources together is expected to help build an evidence base on the value of public libraries — now and into the future.

LIANZA has also been funded to lead an evaluation and impact training initiative, which aims to support participants to work out what exactly needs to be monitored; how to measure what matters; and ways to communicate effectively about the impact their library makes in their community.

Workforce capability

We heard early on from LIANZA, PLNZ, Te Rōpū Whakahau, SLANZA, and others that formal learning and completing qualifications were already a long-term challenge for the library sector. COVID-19 was expected to increase pressure on library training budgets.

With that in mind, NZLPP is creating a capability framework that libraries can use to assist their staff in creating development pathways. This does not provide training or content that development pathways may suggest for staff members but is intended to assist training providers in developing further content that aligns with the framework.

NZLPP's $1.5m grant for a partnership between LIANZA and SLANZA also aims to upskill the library and information sector workforce, providing an incentive to achieve tertiary library and information qualifications. The fund will be used to aid a qualification uplift across the entire library and information sector and introduce new people into the sector.

Te Rōpū Whakahau and SLANZA also received grants respectively to deliver a suite of Mātauranga Māori workshops and train school librarians to help deliver a programme in schools focusing on NZ specific misinformation and disinformation.

This workforce capability mahi is in addition to the secondee training provided as part of the public library partnerships.

Services to libraries

Part of the National Library's purpose to supplement and further the work of other libraries in New Zealand involves coordinating and leading a range of collaborative library services to the sector, all of which have a cost recovery element. Almost every New Zealand library pays for one or more of these services at a recovered cost of around $8 million per year.

While the NZLPP fee waivers are helping to support libraries to retain these services for 2 years, the review is designed to understand how libraries in the sector perceive the value, affordability and future of these services beyond the programme’s funding, particularly in the context of major changes in the environment within which they operate such as digital delivery, local government and education reform.

The aim is to develop more equitable and sustainable models and services, and if necessary, put forward the case for change. This kind of review work is not business as usual for the National Library and will benefit the whole sector as well as the end users of these services.

Programme re-set and transition approach

In September 2021, the programme completed a full reset to update our programme team structure and governance to support the abovementioned sustainability mahi. This included shifting the Steering Group into a more strategic role that could be sustained after the programme closure.

The overarching objective of the reset was to prioritise our remaining resources enabling a sustainable and enduring libraries sector that will meet community needs and be supported by decision-makers.

Now that we are nearing the end of the funded COVID recovery period, National Library are placing the NZLPP mahi into the hands of the sector. From January 2022, the programme is focussing on the transition with the view to wind up most of its activity by June.

The team are also identifying options to assist libraries to more easily transition into the next financial year as the programme funding comes to an end.

New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme Interim Delivery Report - Programme transition diagram

Diagram showing NZLPP transition diagram. Long description below.
New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme
  • Long description — New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme transition diagram

    Diagram showing three years. There are two triangles on top of each other one represents delivery the other strategy. In year one there is lots of delivery and less strategy. Year 2 shows an even amount of strategy and delivery. Year 3 there is more strategy than delviery.

    Other information is a timeline.
    Year One — July to March 2021, establishment. April to June 2021, reset
    Year Two — July to December 2021, transition planning. January-June 2022, transition implementation.
    Year Three — July to December 2022, programme wind down.

Long description — New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme transition diagram

Diagram showing three years. There are two triangles on top of each other one represents delivery the other strategy. In year one there is lots of delivery and less strategy. Year 2 shows an even amount of strategy and delivery. Year 3 there is more strategy than delviery.

Other information is a timeline.
Year One — July to March 2021, establishment. April to June 2021, reset
Year Two — July to December 2021, transition planning. January-June 2022, transition implementation.
Year Three — July to December 2022, programme wind down.


Conclusion

NZLPP is an historically unique programme for the library sector. While it was created out of adversity, the COVID-19 response and recovery effort has also presented libraries in New Zealand with the opportunity to coordinate and collaborate more closely.

This opportunity was not over-looked. The focus of NZLPP mahi has brought the sector together, helping strengthen cross-sector relationships, while Strategic Partnership Grants have triggered collaborations between a diversity of organisations within and beyond the library sector. The NZLPP has also enhanced National Library’s relationships with the sector and helped bring focus to its roles to supplement and further the work of New Zealand libraries and promote co-operation.

In early 2022, all indications are that COVID-19 and its impacts will be with us for some time. The Government has committed to providing support where it is most urgently needed. This means, for now, the remaining COVID-19 Response and Recovery Fund will be targeted at providing further economic support as well as building health system resilience, supporting the vaccination roll-out and strengthening border systems.

In the last months of our programme, the NZLPP team is continuing to work closely with library partners to ensure the existing funding is directed at helping libraries as effectively as possible to sustain the benefits beyond the life of the programme.

NZLPP has endeavoured to plan and position the library sector for the future to support rebuilding in a post-pandemic environment. It is our hope that the NZLPP sustainability mahi will have long-reaching impacts that benefit libraries and their communities for years to come.

Waiho i te toipoto, kaua i te toiroa

Let us keep close together, not far apart

Appendix 1

National Zealand libraries partnership programme (NZLPP) — workforce capability skills

The (NZLPP) will support librarians, library staff and library services to be retained in NZ libraries and assist them to support community recovery.

Common skills and knowledge

General skills across all six focus areas. Note: these are not all the skills a librarian needs, only those needed for success in the six focus areas

  • Time management
  • Cultural intelligence
  • Project management
  • Communication
  • Resilience and wellbeing
  • Marketing and promotion
  • Working with the community
  • Teaching adults
  • Relationship building
  • Public speaking
  • Work with volunteers
  • Problem solving
  • Political awareness
  • Customer service

Digital inclusion

Supporting and assisting job seekers and learners — including digital literacy for children and young people

  • Digital inclusion — barriers, inclusions and co-design
  • Digital literacy — strategies, barriers and inclusion
  • Online safety
  • Statutory obligations
  • Digital know how — using library systems/tools
  • Support consumers of content
  • Support producers of content
  • Support job seekers and learners — including help with careers

Workforce development

Supporting an increasingly diverse workforce — including retention and development of Māori and Pasifika staff, leadership development, trainee recruitment and career progression development

  • Understanding factors impacting library workforce
  • Diversity
  • Professional development
  • Inclusive leadership
  • Recruitment and retention
  • Career development

Community engagement

Including capability building, co-design skills, programming and outreach and by targeting non-users

  • Community development methodologies — including co-design
  • Understand, support and actively apply Te Tiriti o Waitangi
  • Manage volunteers and sustain their activities
  • Communicating with the community

Reading for pleasure

Supporting wellbeing — including local programming, partnerships and support for young people, whanau and communities

  • Implementing strategies to encourage reading
  • Getting to know the community and barriers to reading
  • Supporting reading for pleasure
  • Communicating and understanding children and youth

Te Reo and mātauranga Māori

Supporting local iwi — including staff skills development

  • Working with Iwi to optimise library services
  • Te reo Māori knowledge and use
  • Te Ao Māori in the information environment
  • Contributing Mātauranga Māori to libraries

Content creation

And curation of online New Zealand resources, with a focus on local resources

  • Supporting local community to create and curate own archive
  • Create and manage historical archives
  • Digitisation skills
  • Complying with rights framework
  • Creating inviting and accessible multi-media
  • Best practices for caring for artefacts

Glossary:
Te Reo – the language (Māori language)
Mātauranga Maori – Māori knowledge/experience/understanding

Footnotes

1 — Beehive announcement: Libraries to help with jobs and community recovery

2 — New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme

3 — New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme in action

4 — See National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003

5 — Libraries Aotearoa: Libraries in the time of COVID-19 — our stories

6 — Rooney‐Browne, C. (2009), "Rising to the challenge: a look at the role of public libraries in times of recession", Library Review, Vol. 58 No. 5, pp. 341-352.

7 — Treasury publication: Summary of Initiatives in the COVID-19 Response and Recovery Fund (CRRF) Foundational Package

8 — New Zealand Libraries Partnership Programme in action

9 — EPIC EBSCO package services — which includes Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre Plus and MasterFILE Complete — for all New Zealand libraries with the exception of some State sector organisations.

10 — Read more about Te Puna Services

11 — Read more about the Public Lending Right for New Zealand authors

Released under CC BY 3.0 NZ

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