Woman reading a book aloud, she is holding a book up so the audience can see the pictures.

Making reading for pleasure visible in five primary schools from Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā

The West Auckland Communities of Readers project involves five partner schools who already have connections through their Kāhui Ako or Community of Learning – Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā.

A report commissioned by the National Library of New Zealand as part of its Communities of Readers initiative. Please note, the views expressed in this report are not necessarily the views of the National Library.

1. Introduction

The National Library of New Zealand launched their Communities of Readers project in 2019, bringing together their own resources and those of partners to create communities of readers in four localities in Aotearoa New Zealand. The West Auckland aspect of the project involves five partner schools who already have connections through their Kāhui Ako or Community of Learning – Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā. Some leaders, teachers and librarians in these schools are working with the National Library in leading this part of the project. The idea of a Kāhui Ako (Community of Learning) is one in which a group of schools, oftentimes early learning centres and sometimes tertiary institutions in geographical proximity connect and create a sense of shared purpose for the continuity of learning for the children and tamariki involved. The document Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā produced for the Ministry of Education suggests they regard reading as an important means to improve children's access to the curriculum and is connected to their central aim of promoting oral language fluency (Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā, N.D.). A Deputy Principal at one of the primary schools, who is also one of the community project leaders, provided a broader aspiration for a community of readers that she hoped would develop within the Kāhui Ako:

We are building up [a community of readers] within our schools, within our classrooms, within our Kāhui Ako. It is a spiral encompassing different communities, spiralling outward, bigger. We are a people who read and who enjoy it and we learn from other people. We share good things to read. We grow that passion of wanting to find new things to read and share with others. We are just known as this. It is who we are. This is what we do. We like to read (interview 24 September 2020).

The synergy between this view held within the Kāhui Ako and the aspirations of the National Library project made them ideal partners.

The schools in Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā are: West Harbour School, Royal Road School, Massey Primary School, Lincoln Heights School, Colwill Road School, and Massey High School. Only the five primary schools are involved in the National Library project. All the schools are situated close to each other in the western part of Auckland, the largest city in Aotearoa New Zealand. All the schools have students from diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Students identifying as Māori make up about a third of students attending the schools and approximately 20% reflect a range of Pacific backgrounds. The remainder of students reflect the cultural diversity of the Auckland region, including Pākehā, Asian and other ethnic backgrounds.

2. Methodology

This narrative inquiry sought to capture changing narratives of reading for pleasure in the five Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā primary schools involved in this project. Data included transcripts from semi structured interviews with key community members, and field notes generated through observations of community project leaders at meetings where decisions were made and the events organized as part of the project, and public documents associated with the project.

The researchers conducted the interviews online via organized online meetings that were recorded and transcribed. All interviews were conducted in line with agreed ethical protocols and in accordance with AUT's ethics policies, including informed consent and voluntary participation. A total of four school project leaders (Two school librarians; a Deputy Principal; and a Learning Support Coordinator) and two National Library staff members (both capability facilitators) agreed to be interviewed. Two rounds of interviews took place over the duration of the project. The first interviews took place in September and October 2020. The second round was in May 2021 and was supplemented with email correspondence.

In addition to the interviews, the researchers observed and took field notes at partner group meetings consisting of around 10 project leaders from the schools and National Library, a workshop held at the National Library for teacher, librarian, and school leader representatives from the schools early in the project on 12 March 2020, and two large events for all teachers at the schools. Observations and associated field notes have contributed to this report.

The presence of researchers at all significant meetings and events for this project throughout its duration meant that analysis occurred through immersion in the project. Sense making of conversations occurred through being in the room, with insights recorded and reflected upon in field notes in the form of narratives.

3. Aims and dreams of the Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā project

The wider Communities of Readers project that includes four community projects (of which Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā is one) aims to:

  • Demonstrate that a joined-up partnership approach improves reading outcomes for children and young people;
  • Provide sustainable reading outcomes for the young people directly involved in the community projects; and
  • Develop and share insights and successful strategies for supporting reading, and to contribute to better understanding of the value of reading for pleasure and wellbeing. (National Library, Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā Communities of Readers project planning document 2020)

Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā community of readers chose to approach these aims through focusing on developing "Teacher as Readers" within their schools, meaning they aspired to have teachers who present themselves to their school community as role models in reading for pleasure.In keeping with the National Library project this Community of Readers project has as an overarching goal to increase reading for pleasure for all students. It emerged from discussions observed and through interviews with project leaders that the schools believe that the ways that children are reading for pleasure have changed, and that school communities need to reflect this shift in the ways they view and encourage reading for pleasure. A shift to a digital platform or way of engaging with text is prevalent with children and participants interviewed discussed various ways of using this as a possible platform from which to encourage wider reading (Four participants, interviews May 2021).

Parental support and engagement were considered central to some of the interviewees as ways in which to encourage reading engagement for children, but not only by reading to them. There was also a desire for parents to be engaged in reading through their children, consequently affirming their children's engagement.

Obviously, in your own school you want the children to be affecting what their brothers and sisters read and what their parents read and their parents say, "Ooh, I found out about this book from my child," so they tell their siblings (Deputy Principal, interview 24 September 2020).

Some of the challenges to involving parents in children's reading were according to interviewees connected with parent literacy and education, differences between print and oral language cultures at school and home, and socio-economic challenges facing whānau and families within the communities.

I think parents are real busy now and they don't have time to take their kids to the library or they get stressed about worrying about losing the books and I've found that especially with families that have to move often because the rent goes up, they don't want the hassle of library books that we have to look for and return otherwise we get a fine, that kind of thing (School Librarian, interview 14 September 2020).

The housing mobility of some parts of the school community was seen to be intrinsically challenging, some families in their communities are on the edge of poverty. Reading for pleasure was not a priority for families struggling to pay for rent and food, "... in terms of our community, our parents, families, whānau are quite stretched and in terms of working, money's hard, not to mention COVID and all the complexities that that's added; lots of children and lots of obligations and demands" (Learning Support Coordinator, interview 25 September 2021). When parents are struggling to make ends meet or have little time to spend with their children reading with or alongside their children can suffer (Fletcher, 2018). Parents' education is even more significant on children's reading than economic resources, and this shows in the stronger educational performance of children whose parents have a high degree of formal education (Sullivan & Brown, 2015). The interviewees were looking for ways forward for their communities, and one suggested the creation of a forum where stories could be available on a digital audio platform as well as printed text which may encourage the sharing of stories between adults and their children, and the sharing of narrative within families.

Teachers also see themselves as those who can in these situations provide the support and encouragement for children. Schools provide ways in which access to books is not impeded by worries about library fines and National Library was seen to be supportive in this regard as well, "National Library's amazing – if we lose a book, they don't charge us" (School Librarian, interview 5 October 2020).

4. Project to date

The project was officially launched on Tuesday 13 October 2020 at Te Manawa Auckland City Library with over 120 teachers, principals and librarians in attendance. The launch followed a series of delays resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. At this launch event, National Library staff made two presentations. One more formal, explaining the research supporting the value of reading for pleasure, and the second an enticement to the attending readers about a variety of books from different genres. One of the presentations by a national librarian was how to share books with children and offered some strategies that could be used to encourage an interest in reading books with different themes. These presentations were well received with people taking photos of the slides and requesting copies afterwards. After the event teachers walked off with piles of books borrowed from the National Library, for themselves and their students (field notes, 13 October 2020).

The implication of Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā's vision of "Teachers as Readers" is that if students and other members of the community see teachers reading for enjoyment that will help to instill a love of reading for pleasure in the community. The Learning Support Coordinator spoke of the importance of seeing her parents reading for pleasure. She regarded the value they placed on it as an activity as pivotal in the development of her own enjoyment of reading and the importance placed on it, "I've been really lucky to come from a family of readers" (Learning Support Coordinator, interview 25 September 2020).

She went on to say that she saw part of the role of those involved in the project as being to take on some of that inspirational role for the children they work with. If teachers are going to be role models of reading for pleasure, then they, as teachers, need their reading for pleasure to be visible to students. One school is very deliberate about this process and extends it to involve more than just the classroom teacher:

We have different teachers move around the different classes to read to students their favourite book. We get other staff members involved in reading to students like the caretaker, people around who normally wouldn't read to the children (Deputy Principal, interview 24 September 2020).

The role modelling by National Library staff of how to share a passion for books with children was an important aspect in this launch for the project. With increased knowledge about a range of books teachers may feel better able to share their findings with children. As one of the interviewees said she will "go back to school and (say) "I read this really cool book"" (School Librarian, interview 5 October 2020). Cremin's (2019) research into teachers as readers endorses this thinking. Teachers need a rich and wide knowledge of children's literature and other texts and a working knowledge of the young as readers to encourage children to grow as readers (Cremin, 2019).

Reading aloud to children is a key factor in encouraging children's love of reading. National Librarians modelled this at the launch of the project and provided significant research insights for those at the launch. Merga and Ledger (2019) also identify the value of reading aloud in the development of a reading for pleasure culture. Their research found evidence that reading aloud is not typically a daily classroom practice:

Teachers need to be aware of what they are implicitly communicating, and how this can influence students' motivation, through the manner in which they use the limited time available to them within the classroom (Merga & Ledger, 2019, p. 140).

In her presentation at the launch event the National Library Senior Specialist Developing Readers called for more time to be dedicated to reading aloud, both in classrooms and home. The data obtained by Merga and Ledger (2019) suggests that many children are not being read to aloud. The school staff interviewed saw this as reflection of the complexity of pressures and influences on families, with one saying:

I think our parents are so stretched and stressed as well and the last thing that they're able to do is take their kids down to the library and help them chose a book that they are gonna be interested in reading (Learning Support Coordinator, interview 25 September 2020).

As a result, some see a key aspect of the Communities of Readers project as being about encouraging teachers to read to their students regularly and therefore provide the role modelling of reading for pleasure that children may not otherwise see. While those interviewed believe teachers are already reading to their students, there is a recognition that it is competing for time in a crowded curriculum and school day. The role of leadership in allowing and facilitating teachers to read to their students for the sole purpose of pleasure is alluded to in all the interviews:

I heard some of those 'It's just another thing for teachers' but I thought no, teachers already do it, it's just about being allowed to be a little bit more relaxed about it because it actually a goal we've identified that we're going to do (Deputy Principal, interview 24 September 2020).

Since the launch event there has been another event on March 23, 2021 that involved teachers and leaders from all the schools in Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā. The date for this event was again affected by a COVID-19 lockdown and was delayed by a few weeks. The focus for this event was two-fold, firstly there was a revisiting of the aims and vision of the project, and time was also spent considering teachers' identity as a reader. The purpose of this was to encourage teachers to be more aware of who they are as readers and therefore more able to identify and take opportunities to be readers. Increased awareness of their own identities may make them mindful that reading for pleasure is different for different people and that will be the case for the students they work with. Teachers were again able to select a range of books to take back for themselves and/or their students to read.

The core group of school librarians, teachers, and leaders that have been working with National Library staff to coordinate the project have continued to meet. The focus of these meetings has changed somewhat over time, from discussing the implementation of the project (something that was led initially by National Library staff) to sharing what has been happening in schools and planning future events (led more by school staff, with input from the National Library as to how they can support those initiatives) which has seen a shift in the responsibility for the project. This shift was reflected in the May 2021 interview with National Library staff. They reflected that the nature of this project has enabled them to be more visible and responsive to schools and teachers with one saying they have been "…finding our way into those schools has been much more about, you know, personal contact, and finding where the gaps are, so we could jump in and do something useful" (National Library capability facilitator, interview 10 May 2021).

Doing "something useful" has often revolved around access to books. There has been support for staffroom libraries for teachers, and initiatives such as a "golden shelf" in one school through the provision of books. The National Library has also facilitated other things such as Read NZ subscriptions for the schools that enables access to author visits and other resources and presenting workshops in individual schools.

5. What we found out

5.1 Reading for pleasure

In the main there is a sense of the value of reading for pleasure expressed by those involved in the project and this was reflected in the interviews conducted with both school and National Library personnel by the researchers from AUT.

Any kind of work we can do that promotes the love of reading is definitely something we want to be part of, so I see this as quite a good project for the Kāhui to be involved in (Deputy Principal, interview 24 September 2020).

The librarians interviewed suggested that teachers' knowledge and passion for reading impacts on the children and this is supported by research conducted by Cremin et al. (2014) who has found that reading teachers who are not only knowledgeable about texts for children but are aware of their own reading identities and prepared to share their enthusiasm and understanding of what being a reader means impact on the value their students place on reading for pleasure. Identifying as a reader i.e. someone who reads for pleasure, was important to the teachers and librarians interviewed and whilst there was consensus that the nature of reading for pleasure has shifted, a belief that children still read for their own enjoyment, but in different ways and that it is important for the adults in children's lives to be able to recommend books to children.

My personal view of reading for pleasure is that I read because I enjoy what I am reading but if the kids do not find something they enjoy reading about then we're always going to struggle (School Librarian, interview 14 September 2020).

The different ways in which children are reading was discussed by the interviewees who suggested different reasons why children may be reading in alternative ways at present. The Learning Support Coordinator said,

I used to be a Year 7/8 teacher, so 12/13-year-olds, and a lot of the boys would say to me, '… I actually started liking reading because I played video games and I had to figure out what other people were saying to me on the chat function and things.' That is not just a one off; a couple of kids have said that to me (interview 25 September 2020).

Digital platforms cannot be ignored and the appeal of games like Minecraft and Fortnite are attractive to children and were mentioned by several interviewees. One of the interviewees is considering this factor and making changes to the types of books available in the library and increasing the purchase of stories that have a strong visual narrative like graphic novels. "I'm thinking, well I may as well expand my graphic novel sections and only buy chapter books that I'm asked for because they just sit" (School Librarian, interview 5 October 2020).

A common topic discussed in interviews was the need to be open to considering a wide range of reading activity and text forms when talking about reading for pleasure, and not restricting the definition to more traditional forms of reading.

I think anything can be reading for pleasure. I think we can't limit it … but I don't think we can put any limits on what anybody sees as something to read" and "it's well away from my realm of what I wanna do for reading but they love it, it's pleasurable (Deputy Principal, interview 24 September 2020).

Children having access to texts that are interesting to them was important to those interviewed and anecdotally emerged in conversation with teachers and librarians attending the official launch where they were excited to see books that they knew would be of interest to their students. Children need to see themselves in the books that they read and access to titles relevant to their lives further encourages wider reading (Hempel-Jorgensen et al., 2018). Visits by well-known people who talk encouragingly about books and being readers would also encourage positive attitudes to reading for example "a famous All Black or from the Warriors and they go into schools and talk about what they've read. I think if we could tap into more of that, that would probably help" (School Librarian, interview 5 October 2020).

5.2 Supporting reading for pleasure

In the Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā project four themes related to the support for reading for pleasure in communities of readers emerged from the interviews and observations from the meetings and events held. These themes were significant to this project and extend existing research on reading for pleasure (Boyask et. al, 2021). The themes of leadership, teachers as readers, access and texts are useful for considering ongoing success in the five schools, and to inform decisions about the shape of future projects elsewhere that aim to develop communities of readers.

5.2.1 Leadership

The influence of leadership on reading communities is examined in literature on reading for pleasure, but the amount of research in this area is small and is limited in scope especially within Aotearoa New Zealand (Boyask et. al, 2021). Fletcher (2013) examined the role of the school principal in leading change, particularly in resource allocation which has an impact on what was available for teachers and students to read. The Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā project has an expanded view of leadership that goes beyond resourcing to include the leaders' roles in the project itself. In this context leadership relates partly to the people involved from each school and their relative position in the school, but also to the importance of the project itself in comparison to other school priorities. It is important that the project is given explicit significance within the school. One interviewee talked about teachers being "allowed" to spend time just reading for pleasure with their students. This permission can only come from leadership within the school and must be reflected in the priorities evident and made explicit within the school context. As the project has continued, the involvement of school leadership has become more evident in the project. Initially this took the form of ensuring meetings and events were attended and supported school librarians and other staff leading the project. As the project has developed school leaders have become more evident to staff as readers through using the staffroom libraries and talking to others about books (School Librarian and Learning Support Coordinator, interviews May 2021), and to students through "passive 'duty time' when staff took books out in the playground at break times to read" (School Librarian, interview 6 May 2021). This role modelling shows teachers that the intentions of the project are valued and reflects the intentions of the project that aims to develop "teachers as readers".

The discussion in this project has changed from being about leadership to being about responsibility, and that a project of this sort requires everyone to take responsibility for those aspects that relate to them. This conceptualisation includes the need for action from those in leadership positions but also makes explicit the need for all involved to play their part. One interviewee from the National Library said,

that realization, that it's not just, it's not just the librarian who is responsible for ensuring that your students get to be good readers, it's everybody's responsibility, it's our responsibility. And it's all of their responsibility. And that you have the power, you have the power to do that in your own hands and your own classroom (National Library capability facilitator, interview 10 May 2021).

There is a sense that leadership across the five schools has not been equal. At meetings of those driving the project in schools it has been apparent that some leaders and their schools have been more active throughout the project than others. Unfortunately, we were not able to interview staff from all schools, but observations indicate that where school leaders have not only ensured the project is resourced and valued but have also taken responsibility for modelling the desired behaviours themselves the project has gained more momentum.

5.2.2 Teachers as readers

In late 2020, interviewees were clear that an important aspect of the project was the role modelling to encourage others in the community to develop the habit of reading for pleasure. Comparisons were made to the role parents and family members have played in the development of reading for pleasure in the interviewees' own lives, and the value they place on that as an activity. Interviewees recognised the pressures faced by many parents in their communities and the impact this had on their ability to read for pleasure themselves and to read to their children. The project was seen as an opportunity to be the role model for children and families in their school community. Staff also recognised that they faced many of the same pressures and did not read as much as they used to or would have liked.

The two large events for all staff in Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā (the launch event in October 2020 and the second event in March 2021) aimed to address some of these issues. The first event was focused on re-engaging teachers with books and texts, with National Library staff sharing books and modelling ways to promote engagement. At the conclusion of this event school staff took nearly 500 books away with them to share with their class, each other, and to read themselves. The intention with this was to ensure staff had easy access to texts and remove at least one barrier to being teachers as readers.

The second event was focused more on developing teachers' identity as a reader, so that they can be aware of what and when they might read and when. One outcome of the project has been a broadening of what can be considered reading for pleasure, both for teachers and students, and what that might look like. This is evident in discussion of texts (see section 5.2.4) and the time and place for reading itself. A group of teachers at the second event said that they do not read for pleasure, but they love reading to their classes. Through the discussion they came to realise that this was reading for pleasure and that the social aspect of reading is important. Reading for pleasure does not have to be an individual alone with a novel.

Initiatives within schools have helped to promote teachers as readers as well. Supported by the National Library, schools have instigated teacher libraries in their staffrooms with a selection of books that staff can borrow, and this was mentioned as being used by both teachers and leaders within the school (School Librarian and Learning Support Coordinator, interviews May 2021). One school librarian mentioned that while she had not seen teachers reading to any great extent, she has had conversations about books when students are present. This raises a question about modeling being a reader: Is being seen reading the only way to model being a reader? At least one school has also instigated a "Golden shelf" in classrooms where teachers and students can highlight books they are reading or favourite texts.

5.2.3 Access to texts

All interviewees talked about access to books and other reading resources as being a challenge for families within the communities connected to Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā. For the Community of Readers project to develop reading for pleasure within their wider communities this access issue will need to be addressed. The Auckland Libraries summer reading programme, The Great Summer Read, was conducted online over the recent summer, and this was identified as a barrier to accessing the programme for many in their communities. As a result, some schools developed their own programme to address this issue by opening school libraries over the break and providing access to books. While the schools are still collating evaluation data at the time of writing, this appeared to have been successful. The work they have done and the expertise they have developed could be shared within Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā to help other schools and local communities overcome issues of access.

Throughout the programme, the National Library has supported the project through the supply of books. These books have been supplied to teachers and schools through the two main events, and directly through contact with schools, teachers and school librarians. The two National Library staff interviewed indicated that they felt the Communities of Readers project had raised their profile in the schools, and that they were now engaged with teachers and leaders within the schools rather than just the school librarian (interview 10 May 2021). This has had improved teachers' understanding of the role of the National Library. It has improved teachers' access to books for reading for pleasure as well as a research resource, meaning that a barrier to access for school staff has been reduced. "I think it's been a huge eye opener for them, ... taking the glory of the books into the schools and then saying that we have this real treasure trove that they can access." (National Library capability facilitator, interview 10 May).

One school librarian in Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā has a long-standing project where old refrigerators are used as community libraries for the local community to access and exchange books using the "fridge libraries" in local communities. This initiative was also supported by the National Library with the supply of approximately 450 books over late 2020 and January 2021.

5.2.4 Reading texts

In the first round of interviews, interviewees identified the need to be open to including text types and forms that might not fit the traditional definitions of what constitutes reading for pleasure. Broadening the definition may mean reading for pleasure is more prevalent than we think it might be. All interviewees talked about the range of things that young people are reading currently. They have observed children getting pleasure from texts that the interviewees may not have considered before. Those involved in the project need to be careful not to impose their own limits on to others in terms of what texts might be read. It would be worthwhile investigating what the children and non-school members of the community enjoy and want to be reading.

In the second event for Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā, there was some discussion in this area with one teacher recalling his own early reluctance as a reader until he discovered joke books and began reading all he could find before moving on to other texts. Another attendee identified the increasing use of audio books, saying that she used to be a reader but now uses audio books while walking doing other activities in a way that is not possible with hard-copy books. She said "I read all of Obama's book in 29 hours. Oh, well, I listened to it." One National Library capability facilitator continued this idea when she said "you hear of families now who will be like, listen, everybody's listening to an audio book on a long car trip" and connected that to reading aloud "I read Harry Potter aloud, all of the Harry Potter books, aloud to my family" (interview 10 May 2021).

One outcome of this project has been a broadening of how those involved define reading for pleasure, not just in terms of texts but also the social nature of the activity. The importance of talking to others about books as part of the process of reading for pleasure has been commented on in numerous interviews, and some have observed students sharing books and talking about them which they now see as reading for pleasure when they may not have before.

Some of my favorite moments in a school library had been seeing kids with their heads all stuck over the same book, or, you know, sharing, sharing that book together (National Library capability facilitator, interview 10 May 2021).

6. Future considerations

The ideas and thinking of the Kāhui Ako in this project are important for an Aotearoa New Zealand context and working together with National Library may provide a way forward to encourage the children in their schools to read for pleasure. Some of the possibilities for the future may start with recognizing reading for pleasure extends further than an individual with a book to wider engagement with communities within a school or classroom and beyond. It could also involve broadening ideas about the traditional role of the teacher librarian to a role that extends across the whole school beyond the physical bounds of the library.

Part of what is required is for schools to make a shift from seeing reading aloud and modelling reading for pleasure as an incidental part of the programme to a valued school-wide approach that is consistently visible to students. Those involved in the project from the schools suggested that they saw a change in the intentions of the staff demonstrated by acts of reading that showed children how reading was valued; more books in classrooms and not only the library; teachers sitting in the playground reading as opposed to marking papers or supervising play. Some of the changes were subtle and some obvious.

The National Library facilitators too have found that their involvement in the project enabled them to be involved with schools and school staff in different ways.

We've been able to visit and react because we've been in this project, they were able to do more in the project than we would be able to do as a normal facilitator in a school. (National Library capability facilitator, interview 10 May 2021).

References

Boyask, R., Wall, C., Harrington, C., Milne, J. & Couch, D. (2021). Reading for Pleasure: For the Collective Good of Aotearoa New Zealand. National Library of New Zealand.

Cremin, T., Mottram, M., Collins, F. M., Powell, S., & Safford, K. (2014). Building communities of engaged readers: Reading for pleasure. Routledge.

Cremin, T. (2019). Teachers’ knowledge of children’s literature: The cornerstone of reading for pleasure. Scottish Book Trust.

Fletcher, J. (2018). Supporting and encouraging young adolescents in New Zealand to be effective readers. Educational Review, 70(3), 300–317.

Hempel-Jorgensen, A., Cremin, T., Harris, D., & Chamberlain, L. (2018). Pedagogy for reading for pleasure in low socio‐economic primary schools: beyond ‘pedagogy of poverty’? Literacy, 52(2), 86-94.

Merga, M. K., & Ledger, S. (2019). Teachers’ attitudes toward and frequency of engagement in reading aloud in the primary classroom. Literacy, 53(3), 134–142.

Sullivan, A., & Brown, M. (2015). Reading for pleasure and progress in vocabulary and mathematics. British Educational Research Journal, 41(6), 971–991.

Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā (pdf, 1.53MB) (N.D.). Te Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā.

AUT School of Education Communities of Readers Research Team

Principal investigator: Ruth Boyask

Co-investigators: Celeste Harrington, John Milne, Daniel Couch

Research assistants: Chris Wall, Daniel Badenhorst, Bradley Smith

Advisory group: Andrew Gibbons (Professor AUT School of Education), Kate Irvine (Community of Readers Programme Manager), Jo Buchan (Senior Specialist Developing Readers, National Library of New Zealand)

Corresponding author: Ruth Boyask ruth.boyask@aut.ac.nz

Suggested Citation: Harrington, C., Milne, J., andBoyask, R. (2021). Making Reading for Pleasure Visible in Five Primary Schools from Kāhui Ako o Tiriwā in West Auckland. National Library of New Zealand.

Keywords: reading for pleasure, communities of readers, reading in Aotearoa New Zealand, primary education, National Library of New Zealand, children's reading

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